Osvalder, "Enhanced cognitive walkthrough: development of the cognitive walkthrough method to better predict, identify, and present usability problems," Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, vol.
Spencer, "Streamlined cognitive walkthrough method, working around social constraints encountered in a software development company," in Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems "The Future is Here" (CHI '00), pp.
Participants in the cognitive walkthrough method used materials described in Wharton et al.
The cognitive walkthrough method is defined only for a task-based approach, so the inspection did not include a free-exploration portion.
Overall, the heuristic evaluation method was less valid and less effective than either the UPI or cognitive walkthrough method. Validity indicates how much extra effort is being wasted on issues that are not important.
The main advantage of UPI over heuristic evaluation is one shared with the cognitive walkthrough method. Because the UAF is based on an extension and adaptation of Norman's (1986) stages-of-action model, a usability inspection done with the UPI is based on the cognitive and physical actions a user makes while performing a task.
As we said in the Limitations of the Study section, the bias toward ease of learning that shows up in brief lab testing would favor the cognitive walkthrough method in this study.
The cognitive walkthrough method is similar to a portion of the highest level of the UAF in that both are based on similar models of user interaction.
The niche for the UPI lies between the low cost (of learning and using) and ease of use of the heuristic method and the completeness and task-driven structure of the cognitive walkthrough method involving extensive modeling and analysis.
The cognitive walkthrough method: A practitioner's guide (Tech.