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one of the forms of officers’ training, consisting of the solution of various tactical problems in the field and from topographic maps. In the Russian Army, war games became part of the system of training officers and generals in the second quarter of the 19th century. After the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05), they were carried on with the further aim of testing operational plans and organizational measures. In the Soviet Armed Forces, war games are conducted on ships, with forces in the field, and in military schools and academies. In the course of war games, each participant discharges either staff functions or duties involved with the games. According to its form, a war game is of either a command, command-staff, rear, or special type. By the number of command echelons participating in the game, it may be one-degree or two-degree, or more rarely three-degree; by the number of playing sides, it may be two-sided or one-sided; by scale, it may be operational or tactical; and by the method of control, it may have means of signal communication or it may not. For a war game, a leader is designated, and in large war games leadership staffs and umpires are designated. The war game begins when each side is given the problem with the initial situation and the orders of the senior official on the ensuing actions. Each game is completed with an analysis of its participants’ actions.
P. I. SIROTKIN