Many organizations conduct technical rehearsals of their incident response plans, but Deloitte s cyber threat war-gaming
services involve CEOs, CFOs, risk officers, talent (human relations) officers, legal counsel, and corporate communications teams, as well as technical responders.
The more individuals feel involved and needed in the group, the more they will likely invest in helping achieve the group's goal." (52) Indeed, individual specialties must "come together in convocation," and this convocation yields "conversation." (53) It is this conversation that, as McCarty Little discovered more than 125 years ago, is at the heart of the war-gaming experience.
FD2 informed the Naval War College's war-gaming faculty that player access to as much information as desired might not be optimal.
Fields theorist Kurt Lewin urges that we not be "blinded by philosophical considerations, an atmosphere which recognizes only physical 'facts' as existent in the scientific meaning of that term which has now outlived its usefulness." (63) Games such as Final Destination 2, Irregular Challenges, and the Maritime Stability Operations Game point out for war-gaming professionals a path that will return them to the explorative power of gaming envisioned by McCarty Little in the late nineteenth century--a perspective that values both experiential processes and analytical outcomes and understands that these domains are not mutually exclusive.
Adjudicators and their expert advisers are by definition, as we have seen, unskilled at war-gaming novel operational and strategic problems, precisely because they are novel, with no statistics and case studies are few and analogical.
The three risk factors for (perhaps unintended) intellectual fraud must be considered likely to be present when war-gaming novel and important operational and strategic problems using senior officers and civilians as players, adjudicators, and experts.
(8.) As pointed out by Ion Compton and Yuna Wong at the 2011 Connections war-gaming conference, it is a professional requirement for war-game designers to be familiar with the political-science theory base and models in order to provide adjudicators with the range of possible outcomes and provide the adjudication cell with advice on which outcome to choose to support the sponsor's objectives.
The service colleges frequently perform this role, and each has a war-gaming center.
The nation's war and staff colleges all have war-gaming departments whose directors have professional contact with each other and with key figures in the wider war-gaming world.
Rubel, "War-Gaming Network-centric Warfare," Naval War College Review 54, no.
There is no shortage of problems amenable to useful analysis by war-gaming techniques.
In addition, the war-gaming community would do well to draw on the efforts of sociologists and political scientists, who could analyze the underlying cultural forces at work in such recent operations as Somalia and Kosovo, and who can be consulted in planning games for prospective involvement in foreseeable crises.