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1 In English history, see hundredhundred,
in English history, a subdivision of a shire, first mentioned in the 10th cent. and surviving as a unit of local government into the 19th cent. It is thought that in origin the hundred comprised 100 geld hides, the geld hide being the basic Anglo-Saxon land unit for
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. 2 In law, see guardian and wardguardian and ward,
in law. A guardian is someone who by appointment or by relationship has the care of a person or that person's property, or both. The protected individual, known as the ward, is considered legally incapable of acting for himself or herself; examples are a child
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. 3 In local government, see city governmentcity government,
political administration of urban areas.

The English tradition of incorporating urban units (cities, boroughs, villages, towns) and allowing them freedom in most local matters is general in the United States (see city; local government). The traditional U.
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1. A metal obstruction in a lock; intended to prevent entrance or rotation of a key that does not fit the lock.
2. The outer defenses of a castle. Also see bailey.
3. A division in a hospital.


1. (in many countries) a district into which a city, town, parish, or other area is divided for administration, election of representatives, etc.
2. a room in a hospital, esp one for patients requiring similar kinds of care
3. one of the divisions of a prison
4. Law
a. a person, esp a minor or one legally incapable of managing his own affairs, placed under the control or protection of a guardian or of a court
b. guardianship, as of a minor or legally incompetent person
5. the state of being under guard or in custody
a. an internal ridge or bar in a lock that prevents an incorrectly cut key from turning
b. a corresponding groove cut in a key


1. Dame Barbara (Mary), Baroness Jackson. 1914--81, British economist, environmentalist, and writer. Her books include Spaceship Earth (1966)
2. Mrs Humphry, married name of Mary Augusta Arnold. 1851--1920, English novelist. Her novels include Robert Elsmere (1888) and The Case of Richard Meynell (1911)
3. Sir Joseph George. 1856--1930, New Zealand statesman; prime minister of New Zealand (1906--12; 1928--30)
References in periodicals archive ?
Usually granted in connection with wardships, the king's rights over the marriage of his tenants-in-chief had longer term implications for Edward III's "new nobility."(61) From the time of the Norman Conquest, the control of the marriage of an underaged or widowed heir of an estate held in chief had been the king's.(62) Indeed, due to the custom (noted above) of "prerogative wardship," this held tree even if only a small part of the deceased's lands were held in chief.
Indeed, from Appendix B (i), one gets the impression that geographical concerns were, as with wardships, the prime worth of marriage rights to Edward's new creations -- of the thirty-four grants, twenty-four mainly reflect the landed interests of a new man rather than existing social connections or the desire to make a quick profit.
Thus, Edward III's use of the royal feudal right of marriage -- whether as a grant of the right of marriage of an heir or heiress to a new man or the arrangement of his own marriage -- even more so than wardships, helped to reinforce his new creations' positions within the kingdom.
Even more than wardships, it also gave them a status and presence within their sphere of influence which only came with attachment to established noble blood.(137) After all, at the beginning of the reign not a few of these men were of humble origins, often little better off than their tenants or those over whom they would later wield power -- especially when it is remembered that Edward's new men often gained many of their holdings before being raised to parliament.(138) Thus, though they might increase the size of their estates, it was not simply this which would ennoble them.
In one way or another, then, wardships and marriages were clearly under Edward III's control -- and he tended to use them for maximum effect.
But, considering its short term nature, it is unsurprising that litigation concerning wardships was generally routine.
However, somewhat surprisingly considering Edward III's extensive use of these wardships and marriages for many who would be considered parvenus, private court actions launched by individuals or families seem to have been the limit of serious negative contemporary reaction.
Edward's dispersal of wardships and marriages over the next three decades helped to effect the repair of this situation.
Finally, looking briefly to the overall distribution of grants, the chronology of royal patronage of wardships and marriage rights to Edward's new men indicates a fairly even spread throughout the early decades of the reign, though trailing off later on.
The wardship agreement (between the judge and the guardian, in which the orphan rarely participated) tied children to the service of one individual for many years.