This indicated the presence of water cloud
deep within the planet's atmosphere.
The water cloud
model (WCM), a semiempirical forward model, generally assumes that the vegetation canopy is a uniform layer of a cloud of water droplets and has been widely used to separate out the contribution of vegetation backscatter [15-18].
Due to the smooth, spherical shape of small water droplets, laser light reflected back on itself by a liquid water cloud
retains its initial polarization state, although the sense of the circular polarization state of the light is reversed due to the reversal in propagation direction.
In this paper, an approach based on semi-empirical water cloud
model for the estimation of soil moisture from Radarsat imagery was used to reduce the effect of vegetation on backscatter coefficient.
One approach uses the known integrated backscatter for a water cloud
that totally extinguishes the ceilometer signal; this can be obtained by adding the observed backscatter at each gate within the cloud and adjusting the ceilometer calibration until this integral, after correction for multiple scattering, is equal to 0.027 [m.sup.-1].
In the following, the phase functions of soot and water cloud
at a wavelength of [lambda] = 0.55 [micro]m are shown.
"But instead of a water cloud
forming and then raining water droplets, you get a 'rock cloud' forming and it starts raining out little pebbles of different types of rock," he added.
Above the proposed water cloud
layer, he says, carbon has a higher abundance than oxygen.
We also related trends in water cloud
effective radius to trends in radiative forcing (ERFaci) to demonstrate how more accurate instrument calibration could reduce the uncertainty in aerosol indirect effect several decades sooner than operational instruments.
For the spectral signature of water cloud
, it is much more similar to the clear sky, even though the brightness temperatures in the subregion of 800-1000 [cm.sup.-1] are generally higher than the subregion of 1060-1250 [cm.sup.-1] (Figure 1(d)).
In interpreting their results, Sprague and Bjoraker assume that the fragments exploded well above the planet's proposed water cloud
Figure la shows a typical day's data from an ALC with weak aerosol returns below 1 km, a high return until 0900 UTC just below 2 km from a water cloud
that extinguishes the lidar beam, supercooled water clouds
at 3-4 km from 0900 to 1200 UTC, and then after 1700 UTC an ice cloud that is partially penetrated by the ALC.