water-borne disease

Water-borne disease

Disease acquired by drinking water contaminated at its source or in the distribution system, or by direct contact with environmental and recreational waters. Water-borne disease results from infection with pathogenic microorganisms or chemical poisoning.

These pathogenic microorganisms include viruses, bacteria, protozoans, and helminths. A number of microbial pathogens transmitted by the fecal-oral route are commonly acquired from water in developing countries where sanitation is poor. Viral pathogens transmitted via fecally contaminated water include hepatitis viruses A and E. Important bacterial pathogens transmitted via fecally contaminated water in the developing world are Vibrio cholerae, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi. Water-borne protozoan pathogens in the developing world include Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. The major water-borne helminthic infection is schistosomiasis; however, transmission is not fecal-oral. Another water-borne helmenthic infection is dracunculiasis (guinea worm infection).

In developed countries, fecal contamination of drinking water supplies is less likely. However, there have been outbreaks of diseases such as shigellosis and giardiasis associated with lapses in proper water treatment, such as cross-contamination of waste-water systems and potable water supplies. Animals are therefore more likely to play a role in water-borne disease in developed countries. Bacterial pathogens acquired from animal feces such as nontyphoid S. enterica, Campylobacter jejuni, and E. coli serotype O157:H7 have caused outbreaks of water-borne disease in developed countries where water is not properly chlorinated. Hikers frequently acquire G. lamblia infections from drinking untreated lake and stream water. Giardia lamblia may have animal reservoirs and can persist in the environment. A recently recognized pathogen apparently resistant to standard chlorination and filtration practices is the protozoan Cryptosporidium parvum. This organism is found in the feces of farm animals and may enter water supplies through agricultural runoff.

Chemical poisoning of drinking water supplies causes disease in both developing and developed countries. Lead, copper, and cadmium have been frequently involved. See Cholera, Escherichia, Medical parasitology

water-borne disease

[′wȯd·ər ‚bȯrn di′zēz]
(medicine)
A disease transmitted by drinking water or by contact with potable or bathing water.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Tolani said she was surprised when her baby was diagnosed with water-borne disease considering the fact that she always keeps him under close watch.
class="MsoNormalThe male worker died on Tuesday morning after what his colleagues said was "a short illness." class="MsoNormalSources at the hospital on Tuesday told the Nation that at least 23 cases of the water-borne disease, eight involving staff, had been treated at the facility in April alone.
So far, water-borne disease Gastro has claimed five lives including woman and more than sixty people said to be affected of it.
"There's a stench everywhere as animals have died and their bodies are floating around," fuelling concern about the spread of water-borne disease, Shah said.
Giuliano estimates that a total of six million people are at risk from water-borne disease.
children were threatened by water-borne disease after massive flooding wrecked
He concluded his list with the fact that 1 child dies every 15 seconds from a water-borne disease (1.1 billion a year).
Two other middle-aged women and another man were also confirmed as having the water-borne disease. All three are in hospital.
Its most important function was as the housing for the sewer system, the London Main Drainage, that played a major role in reducing the incidence of water-borne disease in London.
"A conscientious health professional with experience in water-borne disease outbreaks should not support a rule which compromises public health."
The risk of water-borne disease is high if we do not act fast.
The ongoing devastating floods in Pakistan will have a severe impact on an already vulnerable population, said the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) Wednesday.As rain continues to fall, the delivery of humanitarian aid is becoming better organized although it remains difficult to reach some of the areas that have been hardest hit."One of our priorities at the moment is to do what we can to prevent the spread of water-borne disease," said Bernadette Gleeson, an ICRC health delegate based in Islamabad.