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an area with facilities for watering animals. Watering places are constructed in pastures and along cattle-driving routes. A level site is chosen. The area is planned with a grade of 0.05 from the water source (a well, pond, river, lake, reservoir, or canal) so that the water will not go stale, and the area is strengthened by a gravel and sand fill or paved with stone. Convenient approaches at least 3 m wide are made for animals. Watering places are equipped with water-raising engines if the water does not enter the area by gravity, a reservoir for a water supply with a capacity of at least one day’s needs, and troughs for drinking. Mobile watering places are also used, consisting of a cistern on a trailer and an automatic drinking bowl. The distance between watering places in pastures varies with the pastures’ feeding capacity, pasturage systems, type of animal, and relief of the locality, and it must not exceed the allowable distance for a drive from one watering place to another (2-8 km). Along cattle-driving routes, this distance must not exceed the animals’ speed of movement (for example, not more than 15 km per 24 hours for sheep).
REFERENCESOvodov, V. S. Sel’skokhoziaistvennoe vodosnabzhenie i obvodnenie, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1960.
Babenko, I.I . Vodosnabzhenie zhivotnovodcheskikhferm. Moscow, 1964.
V. V. DATSYKOV