Around 100,000 coastal properties would be at risk of wave erosion
, with 100,000 again at risk from landslides on seaside cliffs.
The Dun Briste sea stack is 50m high and was formed by wind and wave erosion
350 million years ago.
The invented breakwaters will be used in the protection of coastal areas from wave erosion
and oil facilities from relevant direct effects, and in the facilitation of marine construction works, according to the release.
It has been well recognized that sea cliffs are placed in severe weathering environments; especially the cliff material in the inter- to supra-tidal zone is always exposed to the severest situation, which produces the most favorable condition for wave erosion
. (48) Weathering-induced rock strength reduction is closely related to (1) deterioration of cementing material between minerals and (2) development and extension of cracks, both induced by alternate wet-dry weathering, (49) frost action, (49) freeze-thaw weathering, (50) salt crystallization, (51-54) and the combined action of salt and frost weathering.
The wave runup analysis further shows some indications that some sections of the coastline are more exposed to wave erosion
than others .
The full scope of works includes the design and construction of a permanent beach and any associated structure to prevent wave erosion
. The total length of the beach is approximately 1,600m long and is located in front of the existing Desert Islands and Resort & Spa by Anantara on the northern coast of the island.
Deposition of the eroded sediment occured in deeper areas located further north to seawards, such as in the area below the base level of wave erosion
(55,300 [m.sup.3], zone 1a) and also on the low-tide terrace and beach face of the eastern area of Laida beach (47,500 [m.sup.3] zone 1b).
The reason(s) for these changes is uncertain--two possibilities are that a progressively-widening wave-cut platform is dissipating barge-generated wave energy or that the exposure of dense root mats along some receding shorelines is increasing resistance to wave erosion
. A concrete erosion control mat emplaced along one section of shoreline in 1996 was found to have been unsuccessful, because soil had been washed out from under the concrete.
The 200m long breakwater will be built 300m out to sea in Newbiggin bay to guard the beach and seafront from wave erosion
After driving sheet-metal piling along the shoreline to address wave erosion
problems, Milam and his crew poured four-foot wide reinforced concrete footings to support the weight of the wall nearest the lake.