This non-linear phenomenon, hereafter denoted as wave setup, occurs in the surf zone where the release of momentum of breaking waves may lead to an increase in the water level .
The existing flooding maps, operational water level forecasts, and warning systems often ignore wave setup. The prediction of extreme wave set-up events is particularly difficult in coastal segments with complex geometry and bathymetry .
The largest danger occurs if the maximum wave setup occurs simultaneously with very high offshore water levels (interpreted here, as mentioned above, as water levels modelled using an ocean circulation model at a distance of a few kilometres from the shoreline).
Some of the very high wave setup values characterize areas where this phenomenon apparently does not occur because of the nature of the shore.
In this section storms refer to all events associated with either the all-highest waves or the all-highest wave setup values for single coastal sections of the study area between January 1981 and February 2014.
The inclusion of the data from November 2012February 2014 considerably modifies the pattern of storms responsible for the highest waves and wave setup values (Fig.
Off Sydney and Brisbane, the continental shelf is narrower and steeper, and not as conducive to storm surge, but McInnes says the effect of regional windfields on wave setup can still cause elevated coastal seas.
The model calculated a 5.4 in rise, but did not take into account the effects of wave setup.