weak interactions


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Related to weak interactions: beta decay

weak interactions,

actions between elementary particleselementary particles,
the most basic physical constituents of the universe. Basic Constituents of Matter

Molecules are built up from the atom, which is the basic unit of any chemical element. The atom in turn is made from the proton, neutron, and electron.
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 mediated, or carried, by W and Z particlesW and Z particles,
elementary particles that mediate, or carry, the fundamental force associated with weak interactions. The discovery of the W and Z particles at CERN near Geneva, Switzerland, in the early 1980s was an important confirmation of electroweak theory,
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 and that are responsible for nuclear decay. Weak interactions are one of four fundamental interactions in nature, the others being gravitationgravitation,
the attractive force existing between any two particles of matter. The Law of Universal Gravitation

Since the gravitational force is experienced by all matter in the universe, from the largest galaxies down to the smallest particles, it is often called
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, electromagnetism, and the strong interactionsstrong interactions,
actions between elementary particles mediated, or carried, by gluons. They are responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and interactions between quarks.
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.
References in periodicals archive ?
would correspond to weak interaction terms while the [l.sup.3] twist disclination terms would correspond to electromagnetic interaction terms.
[C.sub.4][mim.sup.+] has a very weak interaction with the structure layer and cannot form bonds with oxygen in silicon-oxygen tetrahedron.
First calculations of the PBF neutrino energy losses were performed using a vacuum-type weak interactions assuming that the medium effects can be taken into account by introducing effective masses of participating quasiparticles [3, 6].
Among these families, the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) [7-11] is capable of providing weak interaction energies accurate even up to 2-4% for benchmark systems of rare-gas dimers [9] but the computational cost of the corresponding calculations in principle scales like [N.sup.7] with the system size.
Considering the certain immiscibility between the hydrophobic nature of the PPG and PTMG 2000 segment of WUPU and the hydrophilic silica particles, we suppose that the weak interaction mainly results from the hydrogen bonding interaction between the silanol group and the urethane groups in the hard segment domains.
Moreover, FAC was found to be especially advantageous for analysis of weak interactions. Therefore, we focused on its application to saccharide-binding proteins (lectins), because, in 1970's, few methods that enabled to analyze quantitatively lectin-saccharide interaction existed.
Both polymorphs are showing roughness in their morphology due to the formation of zigzag sheets via weak interactions. In other words the crystal packing of molecules seems to achieve maximum crystal density.
In particular, they have been observing the weak interactions that are responsible for the stickiness of clay particles.
3, but only a diminution of the number of the dispersed particles, only weak interactions between the functional groups of PBT and PCL were established during melt mixing, thus confirming the spectroscopic results.
For example, the MSFCMA may provide some means of conserving fish habitat, mostly by protecting it from the impacts of fishing on fish habitat, but there are only weak interactions with other sectors of human activity such as coastal development or water quality.
The precise value of [lambda] is very important in many applications of the theory of weak interactions, especially in astrophysics, e.g., a star's neutrino production is proportional to [[lambda].sup.2].