In-weld monitoring records the penetration depth of the weld as it's formed, and post-weld inspection measures properties such as the height of the finished weld surface, the width of the weld bead
, or the presence of surface defects such as blowouts.
PTA welding is a surprisingly sensitive process and takes constant operator attention; it requires numerous adjustments related to the position of the torch itself and the position of the weld bead
on a round surface.
Also, the behavior of the microhardness is symmetrical in relation to the weld bead
and shows greater from central positions (P3 and P4) toward the edge of the piece (P1 and P6), regardless of processing (welded or welded and milled) and the welding current.
This high basicity, neutral, agglomerated flux has been upgraded and now is especially suited for narrow gap welding because of its good slag detachability, concave weld bead
profile and smooth sidewall blending.
(4) Overheating of tungsten electrode was observed when pulse on time was greater than 60%, where as when the pulse on time was less than 40%, it resulted in poor weld bead
The cracks propagate through the thickness of the weld bead
and stop at the parent metal, as long as it's not brittle.
However, several parameters need to be adjusted to ensure a "good quality" weld bead
. Some of them are voltage, current, electrode/workpiece distance, torch speed, shielding gas, electrode diameter, and electrode speed, among others.
A schematic representation for implementing the position GTAW Dressing weld bead
on the edge of GTAW welding.
In addition, the weld pocket recesses are designed to ensure there is no need for a pronounced weld bead
with the risk of friction grinding the bead down and weakening the weld.
Centrifugal force detaches the molten droplets and propels the weld metal angularly, creating a consistent and sound weld bead
. The speed and diameter of rotation are adjustable for different applications.
However, due to the increased heat input, higher deformation of welded components and massive reinforcement of weld bead
was measured (Fig.
Cycle Time: The welding process cycle time significantly is longer with IR welding due to the rate that the materials can be consistently heated with radiation and their ability to conduct that heat deep into the molded weld bead
. Typical cycle times for IR welding vary between 20 to 60 seconds.