Welsh

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Welsh

1
a language of Wales, belonging to the S Celtic branch of the Indo-European family. Welsh shows considerable diversity between dialects

Welsh

2
a white long-bodied lop-eared breed of pig, kept chiefly for bacon
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Welsh

 

a people living on the peninsula of Wales of Great Britain. The Welsh population is about 900,000, according to the 1970 estimate. Their native language is Welsh. Almost all Welsh people speak English. A significant number of believers belong to the Anglican Church; the other believers belong to nonconformist sects, mainly the Methodist Church.

The ancestors of the Welsh people were the Celtic tribes, the Cymru and Britons, which were driven into the hills of Wales by the Anglo-Saxons in the seventh century. Over the course of several centuries the Welsh steadily resisted their conquerors and were finally subdued only in the late 13th century. In southern Wales the people work mainly in industry (principally in the coal mines). In northern Wales the main occupation is agriculture (cattle raising). In the northern area, the Welsh language has been preserved to a certain degree, as well as indigenous features of material and spiritual culture.

REFERENCE

Narody zarubezhnoi Evropy, vol. 2. Moscow, 1965. (Bibliography.)

I. N. GROZDOVA


Welsh

 

Cymraeg, the language of the Welsh, who inhabit the peninsula of Wales, Great Britain. There are approximately 900,000 Welsh (1970 estimate). Most are bilingual. Welsh, together with Cornish and Breton, belongs to the Brythonic branch of the Celtic languages. All of these languages trace back to Common British and separated in the fifth and sixth centuries. Welsh is divided historically into Old (eighth to 11th centuries), Middle (12th to 14th centuries), and Modern (since the 15th century) Welsh. The Modern Welsh language has four dialects: Venodotian (northwestern), Powysian (northeastern, central), Demetian (southwestern), and Gwentian (southeastern). The Welsh literary language developed from the southern and central dialects. Characteristic features of Welsh include, mor-phophonologically, a well-developed system of initial consonant sound shifts and vowel alternations and a fairly simple noun system. The verb system is highly developed; a tendency to replace old synthetic forms with new analytic constructions is observed in Modern Welsh. There are many lexical borrowings from Latin. In the 1950’s and 1960’s, Welsh began to acquire official status in Wales. (Books and periodicals are published, and Welsh is taught at the university level.)

REFERENCES

Morris-Jones, J.An Elementary Welsh Grammar. Oxford, 1953.
Collins-Spurrell Welsh Dictionary. Reedited by H. Lewis. London, 1960.

A. A. KOROLEV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
(118.) See, e.g., Hamilton, supra note 8, at 19-20 (describing bet welsher who fled fight and was chased, ending in an armed standoff defused by undercover officers); Ortiz, supra note 15, at 51-52 (describing losers who subsequently broke into winner's home seeking lost money, shot winner in front of his wife and children, and fled with $500,000 while allowing winner to bleed to death); Julie Straw, Yazoo Co.
Don't tell me we haven't got a far higher proportion of brown-nosers, bandwagon-jumpers, welshers (it's all right: I am Welsh) and general bottom-feeders in our great sport - as well as, paradoxically, a far higher proportion of very decent, honest people - than society as a whole.
The feebleness of the Jockey Club's control over racing in the early 19th century meant that the sport was full of fraudsters, nobblers, welshers and villains of every kind, and Bentinck determined to redeem its reputation.
Welsher was first used to describe English bookies who, having too many longshot winners to pay out on, fled over the border to Wales.