Asked if Arriva could have done more, Mr Price responded: "I am almost certain if any operator had a contract running for three or four years longer, they would have done things like fit wheel slip
protection and maintenance.
Where: NB = drawbar power (kW); Q = traction force (daN); v = real travel speed (km [h.sup.-1]); Ft = tangential force of the driving wheel set (daN); RTk = rolling resistance moment (daN); vt = theoretical travel speed (km [h.sup.-1]); [delta] = drive wheel slip
(decimal); Mm = engine torque at the flywheel (daN.m); [eta]t=transmission efficiency (decimal); it = ratio of transmission between engine and driving wheels (dimensionless); rdin = dynamic radius of driving wheels (m); [pi] = constant ; (3.141592); and n = engine speed (rpm).
ATC uses a front-wheel-drive layout as its base, but when it detects wheel slip
on the front tyres, torque is automatically transmitted to the rear wheels via a hydraulic coupling in the differential.
And while for me it was always operating in twowheel-drive you have the reassurance of knowing that the 4Motion system is constantly monitoring driving conditions and if there is any wheel slip
traction is instantly diverted to the wheels with the most grip.
Tyre cornering stiffness ([C.sub.[alpha]f], [C.sub.[alpha]r]) is influenced by vertical load, slip angle and wheel slip
. Since the tyre cornering stiffness has inherent nonlinearity and uncertainty, the sliding mode control (SMC) method has been used for the design of the desired yaw moment in order to incorporate directly the uncertainties in control design stage.
In the last years, several techniques based on nonlinear control have been applied in wheel slip
ratio is an indispensable parameter of the research on vehicle braking.
* Proven, fourth-generation hydrostatic drivetrain with variable traction control and S-mode provides excellent traction control to reduce wheel slip
. S-mode is ideal for snowy, icy or slippery conditions.
MDM allows wheel slip
and therefore moderate, controlled drifts on the track.
To reach the objectives, this investigation uses the measurements from robot internal sensor to model the wheel slip
variations as linear Gaussian models.
"The wheel slip
has been much less than we expected on such steep slopes."
However, when the system senses impending wheel slip
, drive is instantly provided to the relevant wheels for just as long as it is needed.