whist

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whist,

card game for four players, those on opposite sides of the table being partners. The full pack of 52 cards is dealt. The dealer's last card is turned up to indicate trump, and after he draws this card in hand, the player on the left of the dealer leads. Cards rank from ace down through two, and the highest card of the suit or the highest trump wins the trick. Partners collect their tricks in one pile. Six tricks make a book, and each trick over the book in one game counts one point. The partners who first score seven points win. Famous variations include duplicate whist, bid whist, solo whist, and Norwegian whist. Whist originated in England, where it was a development of earlier games (e.g., triumph) that were known in the 16th cent. In 1742, Edmond HoyleHoyle, Edmond
, 1672–1769, English writer on games, b. London. He codified the rules of whist in his book A Short Treatise on the Game of Whist (1742) and in successive editions of the book he added new material on whist together with treatises on quadrille, piquet,
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 published A Short Treatise on the Game of Whist, but it was Henry Jones (pseud. CavendishCavendish
, pseud. of Henry Jones,
1831–99, English card game expert. Jones studied medicine, practiced in London, and retired in 1868. He became a leading authority on card games and was the first person to formulate a system of playing whist.
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) who first compiled (1862) a complete system of scientific whist play. The game spread to other European countries in the 19th cent., and tournaments were organized. Whist gave rise in the late 19th cent. to the game of bridgebridge,
card game derived from whist, played with 52 cards by four players in two partnerships. Basic Rules

The cards in contract bridge rank from ace down to two; in bidding, suits rank spades, hearts, diamonds, and clubs.
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, which quickly surpassed the parent game in popularity.

whist

a card game for four in which the two sides try to win the balance of the 13 tricks: forerunner of bridge
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