white lead

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Related to white lead: white lead putty

white lead,

heavy, white substance, poisonous, insoluble in water, extensively used as a white pigmentpigment,
substance that imparts color to other materials. In paint, the pigment is a powdered substance which, when mixed in the liquid vehicle, imparts color to a painted surface.
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 and base in paints. It is one of the oldest paint pigments used by humans. Chemically, it is basic leadlead,
metallic chemical element; symbol Pb [Lat. plumbum]; at. no. 82; at. wt. 207.2; m.p. 327.502°C;; b.p. about 1,740°C;; sp. gr. 11.35 at 20°C;; valence +2 or +4.
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 carbonate, a mixture of lead carbonate and lead hydroxide. It is prepared in various ways. When used in paints, it is first ground into a fine powder and mixed with linseed oil. Its covering power is greater than that of most other white pigments, but its use has certain disadvantages. It reacts with hydrogen sulfide and some other sulfur compounds in the atmosphere, the lead combining with the sulfur to form lead sulfide, a dark substance. In paints made with white lead a chalky film is formed after some time. White lead is extremely poisonous, and painters who apply it are often afflicted with painter's colic (see lead poisoninglead poisoning
or plumbism
, intoxication of the system by organic compounds containing lead. These enter the body by respiration (of dust, fumes, or sprays) or by ingestion of food or other substances that contain lead.
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) because of the absorption of too great a quantity into the body. White lead is used also in making putty and in the manufacture of certain pottery. Sublimed white lead is the basic sulfate of lead mixed with lead oxide and zinc oxide; it is also used as a white pigment. White lead is often adulterated with barite.

White lead

An opaque white pigment, used extensively as an undercoat for exterior paint. Because it is toxic, it is now rarely used,

white lead

[′wīt ′led]
(inorganic chemistry)
Basic lead carbonate of variable composition, the oldest and most important lead paint pigment; also used in putty and ceramics.

white lead

Basic lead carbonate, used as a white opaque pigment in exterior house paints; also used in ceramics and putty; available either as a dry powder or as a mixture of turpentine and linseed oil in paste form.
References in periodicals archive ?
Paint manufacturers lent no support to the Bartholdt bill because they needed white lead. In 1910 most mixed paints contained some white lead to increase covering power and to act as a hardening agent.
Restricting white lead might result in the prohibition of all lead paints.
Instead, the lead industry had to reduce the most notorious poisonings, those occurring in the manufacture of lead compounds such as white lead. Occupational hygiene in white lead plants did improve dramatically over the next twenty years.
Had American painters been less devoted to lead paint, it is much more likely that the country might have participated in the post-World War I movement by the League of Nations to restrict or ban white lead from most interior applications.
The Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers declared that "the use of white lead is a grave menace to the health and lives of painters and should be forbidden." But the International Association of Master House Painters and Decorators of the United States and Canada, whose Progressive Era leader, John Dewar, had so vehemently defended the purity of white lead in the halls of Congress, maintained its preference for lead: "any general prohibition of the use of white lead in painting would result in less permanent and satisfactory work being done." [89] The United States government agreed.
The entire paint industry and its potential regulators, from scientists like Edwin Ladd and Harvey Wiley to state and federal lawmakers were captured by an idea--the idea that white lead was a superior pigment, despite its known toxicity.
[98] White lead's supposed indispensability in paint formulations created strong disincentives to gathering the toxicological or epidemiological evidence that would enlarge the circle of concern to include the general public.
According to a lead industry publication from the 1930s, "white lead paint slowly wears away, leaving an even, slightly chalky surface which is excellent for repainting." [101] What wears away, however, falling to the floor, settling in windowsills, is a fine dust of a potent neurotoxin that painters employed at their peril.
21901, Manufacture, Sales, etc., of Adulterated or Mislabeled White Lead and Mixed Paint, 61st Cong., 2d sess., 31 May 1910, 14.
(14.) For 1900-1910, I have found white lead consumption figures only for 1907, 1908 and 1909: in 1907, the United States white lead manufacturers consumed 115 thousand short tons--29.72 percent of total; in 1908, 118 thousand tons--35.12 percent; and in 1909, 134 thousand tons of white lead were consumed, 36.31 percent of the total, U.
The roasted iron oxide pigment was mixed with linseed oil and pure white lead was the base; ibid., 4.
(86.) There has been very little historical analysis of the effectiveness of the ILO's restrictions on white lead. Nonetheless, the resolution is instructive: painters in other countries were less devoted to lead and more assertive in their demands for workplace safety; foreign zinc industries were more aggressive, and less wedded to lead.