Astell did not hesitate to argue that women will only find true fulfilment in female bonding, and not in wifehood
and motherhood as society wants them to believe ( 1999).
However, Sunny's progressive views about female equality are ambiguous, and differentiate between the relative freedoms of girlhood which diminish into womanhood, and are severely curtailed with wifehood
Thus, such attributes entail females to choose a "women's job" in their career planning such as teaching, nursery, or nursing rather than a "men's job" so that they find an opportunity to maintain their roles of maternity and wifehood
in their professions (Koray, 1993).
In her study of early modern humors, Gail Kern Paster argues that "the onset of maturity in girls and their passage to wifehood
are understood to involve a significant increase of bodily heat and of the aggressive agency such heat entails.
While male juvenile reform was centred on education and on vocation, aimed at creating economic actors, that of girls focused instead on making housewives, a category that was fundamentally in opposition to Yoruba conceptions of womanhood, wifehood
Gentry girls in Russia, as Richard Stites points out, were "trained for modest wifehood
, motherhood, and domestic concerns," and this idea of "vocational training" for women, proved to be "one of the sturdiest principles of social conservatism"(3).
The first issue in the women's fight for freedom is that of wifehood
and women's domestic labour.
She was ideally dedicated to the defining roles of wifehood
and motherhood and, at the same time, assimilating the autonomous and assertive qualities that are sometimes associated with her daughter, Zaynab (in the latter regard, Fatimah is particularly noted for her tragic leadership in the brief interval between her father's passing away and her own, during which, both her husband's right to Caliphate, and her own inheritance-the garden of Fadak-were forcefully taken away).
Far from idealizing marital relationships, the text explores how wifehood
can be a form of slavery.
Still, both Hermione and the Duchess are figures of female royalty caught between competing narratives of femininity--one associated with the sin and contamination, the other associated with sacredness and martyrdom, along with its own particular subversiveness--complicating the Protestant equation of female spirituality with wifehood
Both of these female Gothic stories critique the social construction of marriage and wifehood
as part of "normal" white middle-class American life.
Typical symptoms include socialization to strongly identify with Eurasians and/or their culture, the internalization or acceptance of this socialization, excessive tension and discomfort with racial matters generally and matters African particularly, avoidance of sunlight, avoiding or minimizing social contact with ADP, and disaffection with natural sexual roles a la the creation mythos including wifehood
, husbandry, and parenting (as ideas or in actuality).