Also found in: Idioms.
widely used apt words, figurative expressions, sayings of historical figures, short quotations, and names of mythological or literary figures that have become part of common usage. For example, “high-sounding nonsense” (M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin), “And who are the judges?” (A. S. Gribo-edov), “Hercules,” and “Oblomov.”
Winged words have their origin in classical and biblical myths, folklore, works of fiction, scholarly literature, journalism, memoirs, and speeches of political and social figures: “I came, I saw, I conquered” (Julius Caesar); “Appetite comes with eating” (F. Rabelais); “Administrative delight” (F. M. Dostoevskii); “From the sublime to the ridiculous is but a step” (Napoleon). Certain winged words are not direct quotations from a definite source; rather, they are figurative expressions that are derived from a source and metaphorically convey its general sense: “forbidden fruit” (from biblical mythology), “Potemkin villages” (from 18th century memoirs). These expressions have long since lost direct ties with their original sources and with each historical period have acquired new meanings in conformity with the social and historical conditions of the time.
In their structure, winged words may be complete utterances such as “Après moi, le déluge” (Louis XV), phrases, or individual words that may be composed of the most varied syntactical elements, such as the word manilovshchina (Manilovism: smug complacency, inactivity, futile daydreaming; from Mani-lov, a character in Gogol’s Dead Souls). Winged words are the subject of studies of phraseology.
REFERENCESMikhel’son, M. I. Russkaia mysV i rech’, Svoe i chuzhoe: Opyt russkoi frazeologii, vols. 1–2. No date or place of publication.
Zaimovskii, S. G. Krylatoe slovo. Moscow-Leningrad, 1930.
Maksimov, S. Krylatoe slovo. Moscow, 1955.
Ashukin, N. S., and M. G. Ashukina. Krylatye slova: Literaturnye tsitaty, Obraznye vyrazheniia, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1966.
Büchman, G. Geflügelte Worte, 30th ed. Berlin, 1961.
T. V. VENTTSEL’