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Cartography in the Sixteenth through Eighteenth Centuries
During the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
During the 19th cent. the demand for national maps was fulfilled, and famous world atlases were published. But with the advent of the 20th cent. the need arose for an international map of the world on a uniform scale. Accordingly, at several meetings of the International Geographical Congress (1891, 1909, 1913), the German Albrecht Penck presented and perfected plans for a world map on a scale of 1:1,000,000, to consist of about 1,500 sheets, each covering four degrees of latitude and six degrees of longitude in a modified conic projection. Uniformity of lettering and the use of layer tints to indicate relief were agreed upon. However, only part of the work has been completed. The greatest single contribution to the map of the world was made by the American Geographical Society of New York, which completed (1945) its 107-sheet Map of Hispanic America.
During World Wars I and II the science and art of mapping were greatly advanced. Modern technology, using remote sensing by airborne and satellite radar, as well as devices called multispectral scanners, has made it possible to quickly collect and update information for mapmaking. Computerized geographic information systems, first developed in the 1960s, now are used to link information stored in databases to maps, increasing and varying the amount of information a map can display. Such systems are used to produce maps for business use, law enforcement, natural-disaster prediction, and many other purposes. In 1977, Marie Tharp, Bruce Heezen, and the Office of Naval Research published the Comprehensive Map of the World Ocean Floor, produced using soundings to draw the map by hand. In the 21st cent., satellite imaging has been used to produce and update detailed photographic maps that can be used for navigation purposes; unlike highly detailed but secret military images, the resulting maps are widely available on the Internet and through computer and smartphone applications and dedicated navigation devices. In recent years the critical cartography movement, led by a group of British scholars, notably the late J. B. Harley, has studied maps as sociopolitical constructs that interpret reality and reflect the historical power structure as well as their makers' ideas about the world.
See T. W. Birch, Maps: Topographical and Statistical (2d ed. 1964); D. Greenhood, Mapping (rev. ed. 1964); F. J. Monkhouse and H. R. Wilkinson, Maps and Diagrams (1971); N. J. W. Thrower, Maps and Man (1972); G. R. Crone, Maps and Their Makers (5th ed. 1978); L. Bagrow and R. A. Skelton, History of Cartography (enl. 2d ed. 1985, repr. 2010); M. Monmonier, How to Lie with Maps (1991); A. H. Robinson et al., Elements of Cartography (6th ed. 1995); J. Black, Maps and Politics (1997); M. H. Edney, Mapping an Empire (1997); J. B. Harley and D. Woodward, ed., History of Cartography (2 vol., 1987–); J. B. Harley, The New Nature of Maps (2001); J. Black, Maps and Politics (2001); S. Schulten, The Geographical Imagination in America, 1880–1950 (2001); P. Whitfield, The Image of the World (upd. ed. 2010); J. Brotton, A History of the World in 12 Maps (2013).
What does it mean when you dream about a map?
Following a map in a dream signifies the dreamer is being guided and led in a direction that will fulfill the person’s needs, as well as provide growth experiences.
map :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map f  =  map f (x:xs) = f x : map f xs
This can be generalised to types other than lists.
map(1) A set of data that has a corresponding relationship to another set of data.
(2) A list of data or objects as they are currently stored in memory or disk.
(3) To assign a path or drive letter to a disk drive. See drive mapping.
(4) To transfer a set of objects from one place to another. For example, program modules on disk are mapped into memory. A graphic image in memory is mapped onto the video screen.
(5) To translate, or convert, from one format to another. For example, an address is mapped to another address. A logical database structure is mapped to the physical database.
(6) To relate one set of objects with another. For example, a vendor's protocol stack is mapped to the OSI model. An alias is mapped to the true name of the object. See alias.
(7) (MAP) (Manufacturing Automation Protocol) A communications protocol introduced by General Motors in 1982. MAP provides common standards for interconnecting computers and programmable machine tools used in factory automation. At the lowest physical level, it uses the IEEE 802.4 token bus protocol.
MAP is often used in conjunction with TOP, an office protocol developed by Boeing Computer Services. TOP is used in the front office and MAP is used on the factory floor.