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see carbonatecarbonate
, chemical compound containing the carbonate radical or ion, CO3−2. Most familiar carbonates are salts that are formed by reacting an inorganic base (e.g., a metal hydroxide) with carbonic acid.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(named for the British scientist W. Withering, 1741-99), a mineral; chemical formula BaCO3. It occurs as white, grayish, or yellow continuous gemmiform or fibrous crystalline masses; less frequently as fine rhombic crystals. Density, 4,270-4,350 kg/m3; hardness on the mineralogical scale, 3.5-4.0. In nature witherite is formed from hot internal water; it occurs in veins, sometimes along with barite, galena, and sphalerite. On the earth’s surface witherite readily becomes secondary barite. Witherite can be used as the ore for producing barium and its salts. Deposits of it are rare.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


BaCO3 A yellowish- or grayish-white mineral of the aragonite group that has orthorhombic symmetry, hardness of 3¼ on Mohs scale, and specific gravity 4.3.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Simultaneous dissolution of witherite and fluorite leads to some increase in fluoride concentrations in water, which is typical of the galenite-calcite-fluorite mineralization zone.
The comparison of the saturation indices of fluorite and witherite shows that both minerals are able to produce fluoride and barium into groundwater because of undersaturated states (Fig.
The Gilmores supplied the British Museum with fine specimens of witherite, barite and fluorite which remain in the collection today.
Witherite from the Brownley Hill mine was first described by Thomson (1835) as forming "very large, six-sided prisms terminated by low six-sided pyramids." Crystals to 3 cm are sometimes seen on old-time specimens from the High Cross vein, whereas more recently found crystals from a brecciated, sulfide-rich vein at the base of the Great Limestone formation are pseudo-bipyramidal and up to 1 cm in size.
Total witherite production since 1846 is estimated at 105,000 tons, ranking Fallowfield as the second largest producer of witherite in the United Kingdom.
Mineralization consists primarily of galena with massive barite and accessory fluorite, witherite, calcite and quartz.
Minerals listed by Alfors and Pabst (1984) from this prospect include sanbornite, fresnoite, krauskopfite, titantaramellite, barite, witherite and celsian.
The Nentsberry Haggs mine, situated immediately northwest of the Brownley Hill mine and connected to it underground, produced exceptionally fine barytocalcite and witherite as well as cabinet specimens of alstonite, barite, galena and sphalerite.
Trumbull Peak is one of several barium silicate occurrences located along the western margin of North America; it hosts such minerals as alforsite, celsian, gillespite, macdonaldite, pellyite, titantaramellite and witherite, and is the type locality for sanbornite.
Naturally it's easy for anyone to enjoy simply looking at case after case of phenomenal fluorite, calcite, galena, sphalerite, witherite, strontianite etc.
Witherite and barite also proved profitable, and thus the local mines were supported well into the 20th century.
There are 379 carbonates, 326 apatites and fluorites and 200 barites and witherites. All of these are inexpensive, apart from two Bleiberg Lumachella stones at 7 and 15 Ecus.