women's clubs

women's clubs,

groups that offer social, recreational, and cultural activities for adult females. Particularly strong in the United States, they became an important part of American town and village life in the latter part of the 19th cent. One of the earliest clubs was Sorosis, organized (1868) in New York City. In 1890 a convention called in New York by Sorosis resulted in the General Federation of Women's Clubs. The federation presently includes 250,000 members in 6,500 clubs in the United States, and one million total members in 20 countries. The entry of women into public life has been reflected in the programs of their clubs, which show an increasing interest in questions of social welfare and international concern. Many town libraries, later supported by taxes, were started by women's clubs, and many health and welfare reforms have been initiated by them. The feminist movement also influenced women's clubs, especially by spurring the establishment of groups such as the National Organization for WomenNational Organization for Women
(NOW), group founded (1966) to support "full equality for women in America in a truly equal partnership with men." Its founder and first president was feminist leader Betty Friedan, author of The Feminine Mystique (1963).
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 (founded 1966), which are explicitly devoted to the expansion of women's rights.

Bibliography

See K. Blair, History of American Women's Organizations (1988); M. Houdi, Reaching Out: The Story of the GFWC (1989).

References in classic literature ?
This takes me before churches, Sunday-schools, Christian Endeavour Societies, and men's and women's clubs.
Photographers snapped him, he was besieged by reporters, women's clubs throughout the land passed resolutions condemning him and his immoral theories; and on the floor of the California Assembly, while discussing the state appropriation to the University, a motion demanding the expulsion of Gluck was made under threat of withholding the appropriation--of course, none of his persecutors had read the book; the twisted newspaper version of only three lines of it was enough for them.
On the door hung a heavy brass knocker, an innovation introduced into the village by Helen White's mother, who had also organized a women's club for the study of po- etry.
Established in 1928, the Junior Woman's Club of Raleigh is a member of the General Federation of Women's Clubs, the world's oldest nonpartisan women's volunteer service organization.
Aside from the Philippines, Turkey is making a bid as the FIVB is inclined to hold the World Women's Clubs in Asia.
Former past president of the SWC Brenda Ware read an article about Boatsie's Boxes in a national General Federation of Women's Clubs magazine and thought it was a good idea for the SWC to do.
At first glance, these seven articles addressing the history of women's clubs seem quite disparate, covering a social group in colonial India, an Indian reservation association in Oregon, an alliance of modern Filipina brides in Australia, Nebraska farm women testifying to Congress, a YWCA in North Carolina, the League of Women Voters' enthusiasm for environmental protection, and the General Federation of Women's Clubs support for peace.
The General Presidency of Sport and Youth Welfare, which provides licenses to men's sports clubs, does not do the same for women's clubs.
Black women's clubs across the country established homes for elderly people, organized mother's clubs and literary societies, and promoted anti-lynching campaigns.
Women's clubs shifted from a focus on personal improvement to a focus on social reform, from "education for self to education for service" (Martin 1987, 4).
THE Liverpool & District Association of Women's Clubs held a Breast Cancer Awareness event in Calderstones Park on Sunday October 22.
Murphy); From Schoolmarm to State Superintendent: The Changing Role of Women in Education, 1847- 2004 (Mary Clark and Patricia Lyn Scott (Scholarship, Service, and Sisterhood: Women's Clubs and Associations, 1877-1977 (Jill Mulvay Derr); Women of Letters: A Unique Literary Tradition (Gary Topping); Women in the Arts: Evolving Roles and Diverse Expressions (Martha Sonntage Bradley-Evans); Women in Politics: Power in the Public Sphere (Kathryn L.

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