The legacy of the 1994 genocide means there are many women-headed households
in Rwanda who make their living from small parcels of land.
In contrast, women-headed households
comprised 43.1% of households living in poverty and 42.9% of households living in near poverty.
Data of Labor Force Survey 2018 showed that the percentage of women-headed households
in Palestine was 11% (12% in the West Bank and 9% in Gaza Strip).
With regard to women headed households (294 observations) we can see that women-headed households
in the beneficiary groups report a significantly higher value of livestock income as well as of livestock herd measured as TLU, which, given the objectives of the project is a positive outcome which complies with expectations from the theory of change.
"Both contrasting situations are highly detrimental, especially for poor smallholding women-headed households
," explains Trupti Jain, an environmental engineer, in an interview with Weekend Review.
Social inequalities create additional barriers in managing risks and adapting to the changes they face.FOOD SHORTAGESRecent research in South Africa found that women-headed households
where the woman is unmarried are more likely to experience food shortages than those headed by a married woman whose husband has migrated.
More broadly, access to mobile money supported a 20-percent increase in the savings of women-headed households
More broadly, access to mobile money supported a 20 per cent increase in the savings of women-headed households
were more likely to participate in bean marketing than men, as the latter may have more other farm or non-farm opportunities to generate income.
Because of the social environment, women-headed households
find it particularly hard to earn an income to provide for their families.
The World Bank has called for the implementation of programmes aimed at improving market accessibility, incentives to promote entrepreneurship among educated youth and schemes to help ex-combatants and women-headed households
. As for the estates, multi-sector interventions should be undertaken to improve nutrition outcomes, enhance job opportunities for the youth and prepare for a growing number of aging estate workers, the report has added.