capercaillie

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capercaillie

, capercailzie
a large European woodland grouse, Tetrao urogallus, having a black plumage and fan-shaped tail in the male

Capercaillie

 

(Tetrao urogallus), a bird of the family Tetraonidae, order Galliformes. The males weigh an average 4,100 g; females, 2,000 g. In males the top of the head, the neck, and the back are gray with dark markings, the wings are brown, the crop is black with a green metallic sheen, and the lower part of the body is dark with large white spots. The female’s plumage has dark and rusty ocher diagonal stripes. It is a sedentary bird, but sometimes performs seasonal migrations. It inhabits evergreen, mixed, and deciduous forests of Europe and Asia (in Siberia, it is found in the east as far as Western Transbaikalia, Olekminsk, and Viliuisk). The zone of distribution and the number of capercaillies has sharply diminished during the past two centuries; in some places they have disappeared. They were exterminated in Great Britain by the middle of the 18th century; in 1837 they were imported there from Sweden and acclimatized. In the USSR the capercaillie is retreating northward as forests are cut down; it has completely disappeared in a number of oblasts south of the forest zone (Kursk, Voronezh, and Tula, among others). It is polygamous.

The birds gather in the same mating places during the mating period year after year. They mate (March to May) on the ground and in trees; sometimes they mate summer, autumn, and even winter. The nest is on the ground, six to eight eggs to a clutch, rarely 12 to 16 eggs. Only the female sits, for a period of 25-28 days. Diet consists of shoots, flowers, buds, and berries in summer; the young eat insects and spiders. In the autumn, the capercaillie eats larch needles; in winter, pine and spruce needles and buds. It is the object of hunting for sport and, in some places, commercial hunting.

REFERENCES

Kirikov, S. V. “Rod glukhari.” In Ptitsy Sovetskogo Soiuza, vol. 4. Edited by G. P. Dement’ev and N. A. Gladkov. Moscow, 1952.
Teplov, V. P. “Glukhar’ v Pechersko-Ylychskom zapovednike.” In Trudy Pechersko-Ylychskogo zapovednika, issue 4, part 1. Moscow, 1947.
Semenov-Tian-Shanskii, O. I. “Ekologiia teterevinykh ptits.” In Trudy Laplandskogo gosudarstvennogo zapovednika, issue 5. Moscow, 1960.

A. M. SUDILOVSKAIA

References in periodicals archive ?
"Wood grouse cannot survive on vast clearings left after logging," photographer and environmentalist, Karol Kalisky says.
Environmentalists who fight for the salvation of wood grouse see the problem, however, in such afforestation as the man-planted forest is much denser than a natural one."If the trees are too close to each other, they grow faster, as they try to get as much light as possible," dendrologist Hana Strasiftakova explains.
"Due to logging, at least 24 mating areas were demolished," Martin Mikolas of OZ Prales adds.The Environmental Ministry is currently working on a programme that will save wood grouse in the years 2018-2022.
Foresters plant too many trees in bare areas destroying the natural habitat of western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus).One of the symbols of the Slovak forests, the wood grouse or western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) has been dying out for more than 30 years.
"Wood grouse cannot survive in the vast clearings left after logging," photographer and environmentalist, Karol Kalisky says.
Environmentalists who fight for the salvation of the wood grouse argue that the man-planted forest is much denser than a natural one and destroys the habitat of the grouse despite the re-planting.e: What has been done to save the grouse?