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common name for a shore bird of the family Scolopacidae (sandpiper family), native to the Old and New Worlds. The common, or Wilson's snipe (Capella gallinago), also called jacksnipe, is a game bird of marshes and meadows.
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(Scolopax rusticóla), a bird of the family Scolopacidae, order Charadriiformes. The upper part of the body is rusty red with dark spots; the lower part is reddish gray with cross stripes. The bill is long. Length of the body, 34-38 cm; weight, 270-350 g.
The woodcock is widespread in Europe and Asia. In the USSR it is found in the north up to 60°-64° N lat, and in the south to the forest-steppe zone. It winters in southern Europe, Transcaucasia, Middle and South Asia, and North Africa. The woodcock stays in humid mixed and deciduous forests. Propagation begins in April. The nest is on the ground, with four eggs per clutch; only the female broods the young. Food (earthworms and insect larvae) is taken from the soil and the forest floor. The woodcock is hunted for sport.