woodcreeper


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woodcreeper

or

woodhewer,

common names for woodpeckerlike birds of tropical forest and brush, constituting about 50 species in the family Dendrocolaptidae. Supported by their stiff tails, they cling vertically to tree trunks, progressing upward in short hops, circling the tree while exploring crevices for spiders and small insects, especially carpenter ants. When they reach the branches, they fly off to begin their curious climb from the base of another tree. Exception to this behavior is shown by the great rufous woodcreeper (Xiphocolaptes major) of N Argentina, a ground feeder, and the ocherous-billed woodcreeper (Dendrocincla meruloides) of Trinidad, noted for following columns of marching ants. Woodcreepers resemble the woodpeckers in form, having short legs with powerful, sharply clawed feet, stiff-shafted tail feathers, and moderately long, woodpeckerlike bills. Woodcreeper bills vary, however, from the long scimitar-shaped beak of the scythebill (Campylorhaphus falcularius), half as long as the bird itself, to the short beak of the wedgebill (genus Glyphorhynchus), with its slightly upcurved lower mandible. Found from Mexico to all but southernmost South America, woodcreepers are typically olive-plumaged with reddish wings and tail and striped heads and underparts. They range in body length from 5 to 15 in. (13–38 cm). They typically lay their two to three plain white or whitish eggs in leaf-lined tree holes, which, unlike true woodpeckers, they do not excavate for themselves. They usually take over the abandoned nests of other cavity nesters, such as the woodpecker. Woodcreepers are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
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, subphylum Vertebrata, class Aves, order Passeriformes, family Dendrocolaptidae.
References in periodicals archive ?
Most of these insectivores, especially the ovenbirds, woodcreepers, and antbirds that dominate the sample, feed almost exclusively on small invertebrates (see accounts in Hilty and Brown 1986).
These "flock dropouts," the woodcreepers Glyphorynchus spirurus and Xiphorhynchus pardalotus, and the antbird Myrmotherula axillaris, showed no change in abundance between pre-isolation and time 2 (Wilcoxon signed-ranks test, P [greater than] 0.10).
Ivory-billed Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus flavigaster--I saw one at Canon del Tigre on 2 January 2004 and two there on 13 June 2006.
Observations reported here suggest continued range extensions of some species of birds in Tamaulipas, with temperate-zone species such as lesser goldfinch and western kingbird nesting farther south, and tropical species, such as masked tityra, olivaceous woodcreeper, and scrub euphonia (nesting) spreading north.
WILLIS, E.O., 1972.- The behavior of plain-brown woodcreepers, Dendrocincla fuliginosa.
At Cocha Cashu, for example, there are no less than six species of Crypturellus tinamous, six species of Ara parrots, five species of Xiphorhynchus woodcreepers, four species of Philydor foliage gleaner, and eight species of Myrmotherula antwren (Terborgh et al.
Within insectivores, of which there were 2156/100 ha at Limbo and 1063 at Cocha Cashu, only bark-gleaning woodcreepers and bark-excavating woodpeckers were present in comparable numbers; all other guilds of insectivores were distinctly more abundant at Limbo.
The author stated that the zona flexoria craniofacialis in Furnariidae, except for Philydorinae, was narrow compared to that of woodcreepers, a fact that was not observed by Donatelli (1997).
Some woodcreepers however have a closer phylogenetic proximity to Furnariinae with short bills.
Moreover, woodcreepers as Sittasomus griseicapillus (Vieillot) (Remsen and Parker, 1984) and some other ones exhibit a wide range of foraging behaviours, feeding regularly on live foliage and dead leaves (Chapman and Rosenberg, 1991); finally, mixed bird flocks or army-ant followers, that could have influenced the capture rates, were not observed close to the net lines (although army ants have been previously recorded in the area (Manhaes, 2003b)).
Available information on diet of woodcreepers (Dendrocolaptidae) indicates that they eat invertebrates (Willis, 1972; Ridgely and Gwynne, 1989; Chapman and Rosenberg, 1991; Howell and Webb, 1995).
Although strong-billed woodcreepers have been documented foraging at bromeliads, several species of woodcreepers are quite rare, thinly spread, and little is known about their habits (Ridgely and Gwynne, 1989; Howell and Webb, 1995).