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Woodland,city (1990 pop. 39,802), seat of Yolo co., N central Calif., in a fertile farm area yielding tomatoes, wheat, rice, beans, vegetables, walnuts, almonds, melons, safflower, and sugar beets; inc. 1871. It is a growing manufacturing center with numerous plants for vegetables canning, rice milling, and beet-sugar refining, as well as related warehousing operations. Wine is made in the area. Woodland has many historic homes and is the site of a state historical farm.
the name for the most recent of three great archaeologically established periods in the history of the ancient population in the eastern regions of North America (Lithic, or Paleo-Indian, approximately 11th to fifth millennium B.C.; Archaic, fifth to first millennium B.C.; and Wood-land, first millennium B.C. to the 16th century A.D.). Three stages are traced in the Woodland period. Early Woodland (first millennium B.C.) is characterized by the retention of hunting, fishing, and gathering as the primary modes of subsistence. These traditional forms of economy continued to develop on the fringes of the Woodland geographical area at even later stages of the Woodland stage. Farming developed during the Middle Woodland (first millennium B.C. to about the middle of the first millennium A.D.). Centers of a developed agricultural society (the so-called Hope well culture), typified by large settled populations and fortified earthen mounds, arose in the Mississippi, Ohio, and Illinois river valleys during the third century A.D. Metalworking with copper, silver, and meteoric iron and the production of ceramics developed. The complexity of the funeral ceremonies (large burial mounds) points to the existence of social differentiation. Early prototypes of cities with earthen mounds encircling the sites of the fortified towns sprang up in the Mississippi Valley on the basis of an agricultural economy during the Late Woodland stage (fifth to 16th centuries A.D.). Large pyramidal mounds of earth topped with temples were typical. The craftsmanship in artistic metalworking and ceramics attained an extraordinarily high level. These cultural centers ceased to exist during the first century of the European colonization of North America.
REFERENCESGriffin, J. B., ed. Archaeology of the Eastern United States. [Chicago] 1952.
Ritchie, W. A. The Archaeology of New York State. New York, 1965.
LU. P. AVERKIEVA