All CV experiments were performed with an Elins P-20X potentiostat/galvanostat (Electrochemical Instruments, Russia) in a conventional three-electrode cell with an Ag/[Ag.sup.+] (or Ag/AgCl) reference electrode, a platinum wire counter electrode, and a graphene/SiC die as the working electrode
. The three-electrode cell had a hermetic lid allowing the electrolyte and the space above it to be purged by dry Ar to remove traces of the moisture from the cell and the electrolyte.
All experiments were carried out using a three-electrode electrochemical cell with a GCE (Bioanalytical Systems, [phi]: 3 mm diameter) as the working electrode
, a platinum wire as the counter electrode (Bioanalytical Systems), and a Ag/AgCl electrode (Bioanalytical Systems, 3.0 M KCl) as the reference electrode.
A small flat platinum disc is used as a working electrode
and is inserted into the electrochemical microcell of the scanning electrochemical microscope.
The working electrode
was the g-[C.sub.3][N.sub.4] coated electrode while the counter and reference electrodes were platinum wire and SCE, respectively.
The electrolytic cell was a standard three-electrode system containing platinum electrode (area 2.25 cm2) was a auxiliary electrode, a saturated calomel electrode was a reference electrode, a smoothly polished stainless steel (10 mmx10 mmx1 mm) was a working electrode
in the test, the concentration is 0.02 mol/L and the scan rate is 2 mV/s.
The platinum counter electrode (Figure 3C) was prepared by cyclic voltammetry using three electrodes, which are the FTO (working electrode
), Ag/AgCl (reference electrode) and platinum (counter electrode) at a scan rate of 10 mV [s.sup.-1] with a supporting electrolyte prepared by [K.sub.2]Pt[Cl.sub.6] 1x[10.sup.-4] mol [L.sup.-1] dissolved in 0.1 mol [L.sup.-1] of HCl .
An Ag|AgCl, Pt and carbon paste electrode was used as reference, counter, and working electrode
Mediators are small and soluble artificial electron transferring agents that can participate in the redox reaction by shuttling electrons from the redox center of the enzyme to the surface of the working electrode
. Examples of commonly used mediators include quinones, organic conducting salts, dyes, ruthenium complexes, ferrocene, and ferricyanide derivatives.
The working electrode
(Cu37Zn) was prepared by the method of casting upward; afterwards, it was sealed in a mixture based on methyl methacrylate.
The magnesium alloy sacrificial anode rod was used as the working electrode
(WE), the platinum electrode was used as the counter electrode (CE), and a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) was used as a reference electrode (RE).
The electrochemical cell coupled to potentiostat was composed of pencil-lead graphite working electrode
(GE) or bismuth-film electrode supported on pencil-lead graphite (BiFE), Ag/AgCl as reference electrode and counter electrode of Pt wire.
The GC electrode (S=0.1256 [cm.sup.2]) was used as a working electrode
in the cyclic voltammetry measurements.