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see nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an anatomically isolated cluster of nerve cells (neurons), nerve fibers, and tissues, found in many invertebrates, all vertebrates, and man. In vertebrates, ganglia are located along the nerve stems.

Intervertebral ganglia, ganglia near the vertebrae, prevertebral ganglia, and ganglia enclosed in the thickness of the walls of the internal organs are topographically distinguished from each other. The intervertebral ganglia and similar ganglia are made up of sensory pseudo-unipolar neurons. Other ganglia are part of the peripheral sector of the autonomous nervous system and are mainly clusters of effector multipolar autonomous neurons, including sensory and association neurons. The clusters of neurons in each ganglion are surrounded by a layer of satellite cells, outside of which there is a thin capsule of connective tissue. Between the groups of neurons there are thicker connective tissue layers forming the connective tissue base, or stroma, of the ganglion. On the outside the ganglion is covered by a fibrous capsule, from which blood vessels reach the ganglion by way of the connective tissue layers. The synapses (nerve fibers that form the end, or terminal, contacts) lead to the bodies and branches of the autonomic neurons. In invertebrates, the ganglia arecoordinating centers carrying out the functions of a central nervous system. By means of reciprocal connections the ganglia in invertebrates form a single system that corresponds in its arrangement to the overall structure of their bodies.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A group of nerve cell bodies, usually located outside the brain and spinal cord.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. an encapsulated collection of nerve-cell bodies, usually located outside the brain and spinal cord
2. a cystic tumour on a tendon sheath or joint capsule
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Dorsal wrist ganglion: current review of literature.
Wrist ganglion treatment: systematic review and meta-analysis.
Considerations in performing open surgical excision of dorsal wrist ganglion cysts.
Surgical excision versus aspiration combined with intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injection plus wrist immobilization therapy in the treatment of dorsal wrist ganglion; a randomized controlled trial.
Aspiration combined with seton insertion for treatment of wrist ganglions. J Surg Pak 2007;23(3):205-207.
Patients with a clinical diagnosis of wrist ganglion between ages 15 to 60 years and belonging to both genders were included in this study.
This study provided us a chance to compare the two most common procedures used for the treatment of wrist ganglion in our setup i.e.
Primary care referral protocol for wrist ganglion. Postgrad Med J.
Prospective outcomes and associations of wrist ganglion cysts resected arthroscopically.
We tried to do this research and to compare the effectiveness of the two traditional methods with a newer modality treatment for dorsal wrist ganglion.
On the other hand Limphayan et at in their study on 24 patients with wrist ganglion, reported that the success rate by aspiration combined with methyl prednisolone acetate injection and wrist splint was 38.4%, and by excision was 81.8%.12 In a report by Gerhard et al on 38 wrist ganglion they found that aspiration and a period of observation was a better choice than hyaluronidase injection or surgery.13