Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, N.Y., demonstrated that X-ray lithography
can be used to build many devices side by side.
This novel method may in certain cases represent an inexpensive, efficient, "bench-top" alternative to the use of electron beams or such techniques as X-ray lithography
for etching arrays of holes on graphite, silicon, and other surfaces, says Kenneth Douglas of the University of Colorado at Boulder.
semi-conductor industry in developing X-ray lithography
for the production of computer chips.
Eighteen papers from the November 2004 conference explore the tribological design of grinding wheels using X-ray diffraction techniques, very deep X-ray lithography
for heat and mass transfer applications, and X-ray micromachining with synchrotron radiation.
Earth-bound applications include x-ray lithography
and environmental monitoring.
In LIGA, x-ray lithography
is used to make patterns that are electroplated to quickly deposit thick layers.
The development team may even include several national labs, as is the case with the new soft x-ray lithography
system being developed jointly by LLNL and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, with support from Los Alamos (NM) National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley (CA) Laboratory (LBL).
"At the core of these developments are the methods of lithographic pattern definition which include photo, e-beam, ion-beam, and x-ray lithography
," says Karl Hess, a researcher at the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Univ.