Progress and prospects: genetic engineering in xenotransplantation
. Gene Ther 2008;15: 1247-56.
International travel for xenotransplantation
procedures can facilitate transmission of zoonotic disease.
Animal Heart revolves around the issue of xenotransplantation
. What could seem part of a science fiction story actually responds to, for many, one of the most promising directions of current medical practice: using animal organs or tissue as spare parts for humans.
Wynyard et al., "Absence of transmission of potentially xenotic viruses in a prospective pig to primate islet xenotransplantation
study," Journal of Medical Virology, vol.
touches questions of utilitarianism (greatest good for the greatest numbers) and public protection (2).
Even the World Health Organisation promotes xenotransplantation
through its 'partnerships and collaborators'--such as the International Xenotransplantation
Association (the home page of which carries ads from 'corporate sponsors' including Genzyme Transplant, Wyeth, Roche and Novartis)--instead of acting to encourage responsible science in the public interest, such as stem cells that don't need to be cultured on another species.
Department of Health and Human Services has already broached the idea of monitoring in its draft document, "Informed Consent in Clinical Research Involving Xenotransplantation
." Written by the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Xenotransplantation
, the document outlines how informed consent should be structured for patients who enroll in any trials, including explanations of potential personal and public health risks and post-transplant monitoring (www4.od.nih.gov/oba/SACX/reports/IC_draft_030905.pdf).
NZNO believes Maori need to determine if xenotransplantation
will assist Maori health, and any decision made by the Government requires interaction with Maori nurses and doctors.
The drug company backing Sachs eventually grew discouraged, and the National Institutes of Health, which ordinarily funds academic research, doesn't fund much xenotransplantation
. So Sachs is more or less out of business and looking for money.
The biomedical procedure chosen was xenotransplantation
: the introduction of organs from other species (in this case, pigs) into human patients as treatment for late stage organ disease.
carries with it a multitude of ethical and medical issues, including monitoring and control of clinical trials, animal welfare concerns, the cost of the treatments and the risks of new disease epidemics.
ACT has licensed its cloning patents to Cyagra, Inc., of Worcester, Massachusetts, for agricultural applications, PPL Therapeutics, Limited, of Roslin, Midlothian, Scotland and Immerge BioTherapeutics, Inc., of Charlestown, Massachusetts, for xenotransplantation
applications, GTC Biotherapeutics, Inc.