Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.
See study by D. Owen (2004).
one of the most widely used processes for reproducing documents and for making enlargements from microfilm.
Xerography is based on the photoconductivity of semiconductor materials that are applied to a special backing made of, for example, paper or metal and on the ability of the materials to hold dyed particulate by means of electrostatic force. Xerography was patented in the United States in 1938, and the first xerographic machines were commercially available in 1950. The popularity of xerography is due to the high quality of the copies it produces, its ability to make copies from virtually any original, its high copy speed (more than 7,000 copies per hour), and its ability to produce offset masters (seeOFFSET PRINTING and ELECTROSTRATOGRAPHY). In the 1970s, xerographic processes were developed in which multicolored copies could be made from continuous-tone originals.
There are two types of xerography—direct xerography and indirect, or transfer, xerography. In direct xerography, copies are made directly on electrophotographic paper. In transfer xerography, copies are produced by means of an intermediate information carrier, or agent, which consists of a polished metallic sheet (usually aluminum), a cylinder, or a flexible tape. The agent is coated with a photoconductive layer that consists of such materials as amorphous selenium, cadmium selenide, or cadmium sulfide.
Figure 1 presents a diagram of the direct xerographic process. The photoconductive layer of the paper on which the copy will be printed is charged in the dark to a potential of several hundred volts by means of, for example, a corona discharge. When an image of the original is projected onto the charged layer, the charges from the illuminated, or white, portions of the layer leak onto the electrically conductive backing. The portions that are not exposed, that is, the portions corresponding to the dark lines of the original, retain their charge. As a result, a latent image of the original is produced in the photoconductive layer in the form of a charge pattern. The image is usually developed by means of a dyed powder, called the toner, the particles of which have a charge whose sign is the opposite of that of the charge pattern. Attracted to the charge pattern, the particles form a visible image, which may be fixed by heating the powder to its melting point and thereby bonding the particles to the paper’s backing.
In transfer xerography, the latent image is produced in the light-sensitive layer of the agent. Developed by means of an electrified, dyed powder, the image is then transferred onto, say, plain paper or tracing paper. The image fixing process is the same as that in direct xerography.
Xerography is performed on machines that use intermediate information carriers and that produce copies on plain paper, as well as machines that make copies on electrophotographic paper. Xerograpic copiers are differentiated by the methods they use for exposure, development (liquid or dry toner), and fixing of the image. They may also differ according to the size of the originals they can copy, the size of the copies they make, and the degree of automation.
Exposure in transfer copiers that have a plate for an agent is accomplished frame by frame. Machines whose agent is a cylinder or a tape use dynamic methods in which the original, the optical system, and the surface of the agent are continuously shifting with respect to each other. Exposure time depends on the illuminance of the original, the light-sensitivity of the photoconductor, and the quality of the optical system. The Soviet-made ER-620R nonportable rotary xerographic copier, for example, can make copies of design documents on paper rolls 620 mm wide at a rate of nearly 3 m/min.
REFERENCESSlutskin, A. A., and V. I. Sheberstov. Kopiroval’nye protsessy i materialy reprografii i maloi poligrafii i Moscow, 1971.
Protsessy i apparaty elektrofotografii. Leningrad, 1972.
Alferov, A. V., I. S. Reznik, and V. G. Shorin. Orgatekhnika. Moscow, 1973.
Ivanov, R. N. Reprografiia. Moscow, 1977.
A. V. ALFEROV
electrophotographicThe printing technique used in laser and LED printers and most copy machines. It uses electrostatic charges, dry ink (toner) and light. A selenium-coated, photoconductive drum is positively charged. Using a laser or LEDs, a negative of the image is beamed onto the drum, cancelling the charge and leaving a positively charged replica of the original image.
A negatively charged toner is attracted to the positive image on the drum, and the toner is then attracted to the paper, also positively charged. The final stage is fusing, which uses heat and pressure, pressure alone or light to cause the toner to permanently adhere to the paper.
Xerography Was Introduced in 1948
In 1938, electrophotography was invented by Chester Carlson in Queens, New York, and his first of 28 patents was issued in 1940. By 1947, Haloid Corporation and Batelle Development Corporation were working with Carlson, and xerography became official in 1948. A huge breakthrough, it replaced the messy liquid ink of the duplicating machines of the day with a dry, granular ink. In Greek, xero means "dry," and graphy means "write."
|Electrostatic charges are used to create a charged light image on the drum. The toner is attracted to the drum and then to the paper.|
|"Painting" the Drum|
|The laser printer uses a single light directed by moving mirrors, but there are more lenses and parts than are shown here. The LED printer has a stationary array of thousands of tiny LEDs that are selectively beamed onto the drum.|
|The Model A - 1949|
|The first Xerox copier was manually operated, but it provided the experience and revenue to develop the automatic, floor-standing Xerox 914 ten years later. The 914 was a huge success. (Image courtesy of Xerox Corporation.)|
|The 1938 Experiment Replicated in 1965|
|With india ink, Carlson wrote "10-22-38 ASTORIA" on a glass slide and rubbed a sulphur-covered zinc plate with a handkerchief to apply an electrostatic charge. He put the slide on the plate, exposed it to light with the room dark, removed the slide and sprinkled lycopodium powder on the plate. He gently blew off the loose powder, and what remained was the first electrophotographic copy. After Xerox became successful, Carlson was showered with honors and wealth. At age 62 in 1968, he died of a stroke on a New York street. (Image courtesy of Xerox Corporation.)|