Calamagrostis purpurascens (purple reedgrass), Hesperostipa comata (needle-and-thread grass), Pseudoroegneria spicata (bluebunch wheatgrass), and Poa glauca (glaucous bluegrass), each in combination with Artemisia frigida (pasture sagewort), form xerophytic
grassland communities in the Carmacks region (Strong, 2015) and farther west.
Therefore, the steppe community in the study area is classified in the order Astragalo-Brometalia comprising montane zone consisting of xerophytic
grasslands and thorn cushion communities in Taurus and in the alliance Agropyro tauri-Stachydion lavandulifoliae Quezel 1973 due to being well supported characteristic species of the alliance and the order and occuring in sub-alpine zone (Parolly, 2004).
The soils in such areas are shallow and support vegetation of xerophytic
Canopy openness in dry forests is greater than 54% (Nascimento et al., 2007), with high associated levels of solar radiation that would desiccate the vegetation if not for its xerophytic
Vegetation is xerophytic
due to low rainfall and high temperatures (Marquez, 1999).
The highlands of the SMO can reach over 3,000 m in elevation, creating a barrier that isolates tropical western vegetations from eastern xerophytic
For example, household income in the municipality of South Soalara (southwestern Madagascar) overwhelmingly depends on maintaining herds of small ruminants in xerophytic
bush and on producing charcoal (Rabeniala et al.
Chambers's volume includes discussions of climate change and vocabulary words like "xerophytic
," "chernozem," "evapotranspiration," "halophyte," "intercropping," and "pastoralist."
The vegetation of the studied area is characterized by sparse trees, shrubs and sappy thorny plants, or rather, predominantly dry shrub forest with xerophytic
Rays involute; exoperidium sub-hygroscopic; endoperidium surface furfuraceous; xerophytic
habitat Geastrum xerophilum 5.
Mastigoceras camponoti has been recorded in tropical rain forests in the states of Minas Gerais, Manaus and Rio de Janeiro (Stach 1935; Cassagnau & Oliveria 1992) and from Caatinga vegetation (xerophytic
thorn woodlands) in Ceara state, northeastern Brazil (Palacios-Vargas unpublished data).