# xor

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## XOR

[eks′ȯr]
(computer science)

## XOR

(eXclusive OR) A Boolean logic operation that is widely used in cryptography as well as in generating parity bits for error checking and fault tolerance. XOR compares two input bits and generates one output bit. The logic is simple. If the bits are the same, the result is 0. If the bits are different, the result is 1.

Several Symbols
Various symbols are used to designate the XOR operation including a + sign inside a circle, an underlined "V" and the caret (^). See cryptography, RAID and or.

XOR in Cryptography This example uses XOR and the same "secret key" to encrypt and decrypt. Although XOR logic may be used, secret key algorithms are much more sophisticated than this. See encryption algorithm.
References in periodicals archive ?
equation (1)), conduct XOR operation with [mathematical expression not reproducible] and [P.sub.i] for diffusion, and denote the result as [P.sub.i'].
Tsekrekos, "Performance analysis of ultrafast all-optical Boolean XOR gate using semiconductor optical amplifier-based Mach-Zehnder Interferometer," Optics Communications, vol.
Similarly, the subtractor design is comprised of one three-input XOR gate and one three-input majority voter with one inverter gate.
Since all the images are QR codes, which have their own abilities to correct errors, and the plane modification is the second significant bit plane of the grayscale image, our scheme is robust to conventional image attacks, such as rotation, JPEG compression, Gaussian noise, resizing and cropping, when reconstructing the secret image, performing XOR operation on the bits of the codewords region in the second significant planes of the grayscale shares and adding the functional patterns, version, and format information together.
[P.sub.i] = mod (xor ([C.sub.i] - xor ([C.sub.i-1],xor (i,n)), [K.sub.i]), 2 56) (11)
A vector Bt is defined as the concatenation of the element bt, m times, the partial results operate through XOR gates for the results of the final product, as described in Table 4.
The XOR operation on the inputs A, B and [C.sub.in] achieves Sum function.
According to Table 2, extract watermarking by using XOR operation.
XO and XDH are two inter convertible forms of XOR. Administration of adenosine after exposure to gamma radiation induced significant decrease in XO and significant increase in XDH activities associated with significant decrease in serum uric acid, postulating the inhibitory effect of adenosine on ROS generation systems (Kudina et al., 2003).
The scheme consists of only simple bitwise XOR, AND and rotation (circular shift) operations, which replaces the hash function of previous works.
Congenital diseases may also give rise to hyperuricemia, recessive disorders involving the overproduction of uric acid due to complete or partial lack of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT) [18], which acts to salvage purines from degraded DNA, taking intracellular hypoxanthine to inosine monophosphate (IMP) and xanthine to xanthine Monophosphate (certain isozymes), and a deficiency or absence of this enzyme results in elevated concentrations of XOR substrates in the cell [19, 20].
XOR catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid, which are the last two steps of purine catabolism in the highest primates.

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