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yarn,fibers or filaments formed into a continuous strand for use in weaving textiles or for the manufacture of thread. A staple fiberfiber,
threadlike strand, usually pliable and capable of being spun into a yarn. Many different fibers are known to be usable; some 40 of these are of commercial importance, and others are of local or specialized use. Fibers may be classified as either natural or synthetic.
..... Click the link for more information. , such as cotton, linen, or wool, is made into yarn by cardingcarding,
process by which fibers are opened, cleaned, and straightened in preparation for spinning. The fingers were first used, then a tool of wood or bone shaped like a hand, then two flat pieces of wood (cards) covered with skin set with thorns or teeth.
..... Click the link for more information. , combingcombing,
process that follows carding in the preparation of fibers for spinning, lays the fibers parallel, and removes noils (short fibers). The modern combing machine is a specialized carding machine.
..... Click the link for more information. (for fine, long staples only), drawing out into roving, then spinningspinning,
the drawing out, twisting, and winding of fibers into a continuous thread or yarn. From antiquity until the Industrial Revolution, spinning was a household industry. The roughly carded fiber was at first held in one hand and drawn out and twisted by the other hand.
..... Click the link for more information. . Continuous filaments, such as silk, rayon, and nylon, may be formed directly into yarn or may be cut into short lengths and prepared like staple fibers. Yarns are twisted to give them strength and smoothness; a clockwise twist is known as the Z twist and a counterclockwise twist is known as the S twist. Two or more strands twisted together form ply yarns. In slub yarns areas are left untwisted to vary the diameter for ornamental effects. Complex yarns, such as bouclé and ratiné, are made by twisting together yarns of different tensions or diameters. The relation between the weight of the raw fiber of staple yarns and the yarn length is expressed by the yarn number; the finer the yarn, the higher the number. In filament yarns the yarn number, expressed in deniers, increases with the coarseness of the yarn.
a basic textile material consisting of fibers joined by twisting and, sometimes, by bonding. Yarns are distinguished according to types of fibers, purpose, method of production and finishing, and structural properties (texture).
Yarns are produced from all types of textile fibers. A yarn made from a single type of fiber is known as a one hundred percent yarn, and a yarn made from a mixture of two or more types of yarn is called a blend, or mixed, yarn. Yarn consisting of a considerable amount of waste material is known as tow yarn. A distinction is made between weaving yarn (warp and weft yarns), knitting yarn, thread, and rope.
In preparation for spinning, yarn may be carded, combed, or condensed. Yarn is also distinguished according to the type of machine on which it is spun (ring spinning, open-end spinning). A distinction is also made between raw yarn (without any finish), bleached yarn, mercerized yarn, dyed yarn, and mélange yarn (a mixture of dyed and raw fibers). On the basis of structure, yarns are classified as single yarns, textured yarns, and twist yarns (twisted from several filaments).
There are three basic types of cotton yarns. Combed cotton yarns—the finest cotton yarns—have a thickness of 5–18.5 tex and are made primarily of fine-stapled cotton. Carded cotton yarn has a thickness of 13.3–100 tex and is made of middle-grade cotton. Condensed cotton yarn, which has a thickness of 100 tex or greater, is made from cotton wastes and low-grade cotton.
Wool yarn is manufactured in thicknesses of 15.5–42 tex (combed), 30–83 tex (coarse combed), and 42–500 tex (condensed).
Linen yarn is spun by the dry method from long and short flax fiber and tow or by the wet method (the roving is moistened before spinning) from long fiber and tow. Yarn having a thickness of 24–200 tex is produced by wet spinning, and coarse yarn with a thickness of 33–666 tex is usually produced by dry spinning. Coarse linen yarn is also produced when other types of bast fibers are spun (hemp, jute).
Silk yarn is produced from natural silk wastes (cocoon peelings, pierced cocoons), which are cleaned of impurities, boiled, and broken down into separate fibers. The yarns have a thickness of up to 7 tex.
Low-density fibers, such as asbestos, are usually spun in a blend with cotton or chemical fibers. Yarn made of chemical fibers is produced by spinning; it is available in the same range of thicknesses as the natural yarn for which it is a substitute.
The basic characteristics of yarn are thickness, twist, tensile strength, stretch, uniformity of thickness and density, and purity (absence of defects).
REFERENCEKukin, G. N., and A. N. Solov’ev. Tekstil’noe materialovedenie, parts 1–3. Moscow, 1961–67.
V. E. MARGULIS
What does it mean when you dream about yarn?
To see yarn tangled and knotted up in a dream may indicate something about one’s emotions or about the condition of the dreamer’s personal life. To be untangling a ball of yarn may suggest that the dreamer is slowly but surely clearing things up.