ytterbium


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ytterbium

(ĭtûr`bēəm) [for Ytterby, a town in Sweden], metallic chemical element; symbol Yb; at. no. 70; at. wt. 173.054; m.p. 819°C;; b.p. about 1,194°C;; sp. gr. about 7.0; valence +2 or +3. Ytterbium is a soft, malleable, ductile, lustrous silver-white metal. Although it is one of the rare-earth metalsrare-earth metals,
in chemistry, group of metals including those of the lanthanide series and actinide series and usually yttrium, sometimes scandium and thorium, and rarely zirconium. Promethium, which is not found in nature, is not usually considered a rare-earth metal.
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 of the lanthanide serieslanthanide series,
a series of metallic elements, included in the rare-earth metals, in Group 3 of the periodic table. Members of the series are often called lanthanides, although lanthanum (atomic number 57) is not always considered a member of the series.
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 in Group 3 of the periodic tableperiodic table,
chart of the elements arranged according to the periodic law discovered by Dmitri I. Mendeleev and revised by Henry G. J. Moseley. In the periodic table the elements are arranged in columns and rows according to increasing atomic number (see the table entitled
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, in some of its chemical and physical properties it more closely resembles calcium, strontium, and barium. It exhibits allotropyallotropy
[Gr.,=other form]. A chemical element is said to exhibit allotropy when it occurs in two or more forms in the same physical state; the forms are called allotropes.
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; at room temperature a face-centered cubic crystalline form is stable. The metal tarnishes slowly in air and reacts slowly with water but rapidly dissolves in mineral acids. It forms numerous compounds, some of which are yellow or green. The oxide (ytterbia, Yb2O3) is colorless. It is widely distributed in a number of minerals, e.g., gadolinite, and is recovered from monazite but has no commercial uses. Its discovery is credited to J. C. G. de Marignac, who in 1878 separated a substance he called ytterbia. In 1907, Georges Urbain showed that this substance contained lutetium in addition to ytterbium. At about this same time C. A. von Welsbach independently discovered ytterbium and called it aldebaranium.

ytterbium

[i′tər·bē·əm]
(chemistry)
A rare-earth metal of the yttrium subgroup, symbol Yb, atomic number 70, atomic weight 173.04; lustrous, malleable, soluble in dilute acids and liquid ammonia, reacts slowly with water; melts at 824°C, boils at 1427°C; used in chemical research, lasers, garnet doping, and x-ray tubes.

ytterbium

a soft malleable silvery element of the lanthanide series of metals that occurs in monazite and is used to improve the mechanical properties of steel. Symbol: Yb; atomic no.: 70; atomic wt.: 173.04; valency: 2 or 3; relative density: 6.903 (alpha), 6.966 (beta); melting pt.: 819?C; boiling pt.: 1196?C
References in periodicals archive ?
The physicists built their ytterbium clocks using about 10,000 rare-earth atoms cooled to 10 microkelvin (10 millionths of a degree above absolute zero) and trapped in an optical lattice made of laser light.
The indicators used at the estimation of fecal production and apparent total and partial digestibility in the digestive tract were the complexed chrome (Cr-EDTA) and ytterbium chloride (Yb[Cl.sub.3]) as external indicators, and indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF) naturally present in the feed, as internal indicator.
Individual heavy rare earth element grades were 0.03 kg/t europium oxide, 0.27 kg/t gadolinium oxide, 0.05 kg/t terbium oxide, 0.29 kg/t dysprosium oxide, 0.06 kg/t holmium oxide, 0.15 kg/t erbium oxide, 0.02 kg/t thulium oxide, 0.11 kg/t ytterbium oxide, 0.01 kg/t lutetium oxide and 1.88 kg/t yttrium oxide.
Among the topics are squeezing and entanglement in a Bose-Einstein condensate, the stability of the proton-to-electron mass ratio tested with molecules using an optical link to a primary clock, room-temperature atomic ensembles for quantum memory and magnetometry, ultra-cold ytterbium atoms in optical lattices, and laser spectroscopy on relativistic ion beams.
The rare earth sector covers companies with operations involving exploration, extraction, transport, processing or any other business involving any of the following 17 rare earth elements: Scandium, Yttrium, Lanthanum, Lutetium, Ytterbium, Thulium, Erbium, Holmium, Dysprosium, Terbium, Gadolinium, Europium, Samarium, Promethium, Neodymium, Praseodymium, and Cerium.
Soil assays for REE's include Samarium (Sm), were reported with grades of up to 218 ppm (g/t) and Dysprosium (Dy) with grades of up to 98.6 ppm (g/t), Neodymium (Nd) with grades of up to 1190 ppm (g/t), Ytterbium (Yb) with grades of up to 31.3 ppm (g/t) and Yttrium (Y) with grades of up to 472 ppm (g/t).
As soon as I have one, say for holmium, then the same probe will work for terbium or thulium or ytterbium. So one construct automatically produces 37 different probes.
Physiological and biochemical perturbations in the liver of Carassius auratus were investigated in vivo following 40 days of exposure to ytterbium solutions of different concentration.
According to Modot Uul the property contains rare earth elements including scandium, yttrium, ytterbium and lanthanum.
Led by Anthony Buda, scientists from the USDA-ARS and the Chinese Academy of Sciences applied two rare earth chlorides (lanthanum chloride and ytterbium chloride) to poultry, dairy, and swine manures.
(1) There was already ample Western concern about potential diminishing access to supplies of REEs, particularly after a 2009 draft report written by China's Ministry of Industry and Information Technology called for a total ban on foreign shipments of terbium, dysprosium, ytterbium, thulium, and lutetium, and a restriction of neodymium, europium, cerium, and lanthanum exports.