(31) Purishkevich possessed extensive landed estates in the Akkerman district of southern Bessarabia and was, for many years, a member of the district zemstvo
assembly, where he positioned himself as a fierce adversary of the dominant "Krupenskii clan" and as a champion and protector of the interests of the Orthodox peasantry.
Despite his grief over the zemstvos
, he is still "ready to discuss ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) that which concerns [himself]" (18: 260).
Moreover, it was peripheral to the liberal take on modernization, which, as the Herald consistently argued, could only succeed if society participated in it through the zemstvos
, which the Populists considered tools of the gentry and the Marxists ignored completely.
Average expenditure on roads by rural soviets during 1924-27 amounted to less than 1 per cent of their budgets, which generally were smaller than the budgets of the zemstvos
before the revolution.
Yet, interestingly, Frierson also shows how peasants sometimes turned to the government for sup port against the coercive energies of zemstvo
do-gooders determined to rationally assist villagers whether they liked it or not.
"The Debate over the Delivery of Health Care in Rural Russia: The Moscow Zemstvo
, 1864-1878." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 50: 226-41.
Thus in Russia in 1904-1905, as in France in May 1968, events when closely scrutinized conform closely to the "Singer model." Students and intellectuals acted first, in the zemstvo
congress, banquets, and other middle-class gatherings of 1904.
writers were especially distinguished in this regard (the Poltava and Khar'kov zemstvos
perhaps most of all), but so too were a number of non-zemstvo pamphleteers (many of them populists) who wrote resettlement brochures and handbooks "for the people."  All of these publications were either free or very cheap, short, simply written, and identical in terms of their general purpose.
Making good use of district and provincial council (zemstvos
) reports, Glickman is able to paint a detailed picture of the conditions under which these women worked.
We learn that plenty of other populists went to work for zemstvos
, banks, or as insurance agents in the provinces.
The result was a flood of paper, from intellectuals, zemstvos
, and, above all, from peasants.
Emerging Democracy in Late Imperial Russia: Case Studies on Local Self-Government (the Zemstvos
), State Duma Elections, the Tsarist Government, and the State Council before and during World War I.