Zemstvos


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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Zemstvos

 

(district and provincial assemblies), district and provincial administrative organs of zemstvo (district and provincial self-government) institutions in Russia from 1864 to 1917.

The zemstvos elected zemstvo boards every three years and controlled their work, approved a budget, and apportioned zemstvo duties. The chairman of the zemstvo was called the marshal of the nobility. The members of the provincial zemstvos were elected by the district zemstvos, from among the district members, who were elected on the basis of property qualifications and an apportionment system that guaranteed the significant predominance of the nobility. The peasants were deprived of zemstvo representation by the statutes of 1890. The peasants elected candidates from volost (small rural district) assemblies, but the peasant members were appointed from their number by the governor on the recommendation of the land captain of the uchastok (subdistrict).

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
(31) Purishkevich possessed extensive landed estates in the Akkerman district of southern Bessarabia and was, for many years, a member of the district zemstvo assembly, where he positioned himself as a fierce adversary of the dominant "Krupenskii clan" and as a champion and protector of the interests of the Orthodox peasantry.
Despite his grief over the zemstvos, he is still "ready to discuss ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) that which concerns [himself]" (18: 260).
Moreover, it was peripheral to the liberal take on modernization, which, as the Herald consistently argued, could only succeed if society participated in it through the zemstvos, which the Populists considered tools of the gentry and the Marxists ignored completely.
Average expenditure on roads by rural soviets during 1924-27 amounted to less than 1 per cent of their budgets, which generally were smaller than the budgets of the zemstvos before the revolution.
Yet, interestingly, Frierson also shows how peasants sometimes turned to the government for sup port against the coercive energies of zemstvo do-gooders determined to rationally assist villagers whether they liked it or not.
"The Debate over the Delivery of Health Care in Rural Russia: The Moscow Zemstvo, 1864-1878." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 50: 226-41.
Thus in Russia in 1904-1905, as in France in May 1968, events when closely scrutinized conform closely to the "Singer model." Students and intellectuals acted first, in the zemstvo congress, banquets, and other middle-class gatherings of 1904.
Zemstvo writers were especially distinguished in this regard (the Poltava and Khar'kov zemstvos perhaps most of all), but so too were a number of non-zemstvo pamphleteers (many of them populists) who wrote resettlement brochures and handbooks "for the people." [14] All of these publications were either free or very cheap, short, simply written, and identical in terms of their general purpose.
Making good use of district and provincial council (zemstvos) reports, Glickman is able to paint a detailed picture of the conditions under which these women worked.
We learn that plenty of other populists went to work for zemstvos, banks, or as insurance agents in the provinces.
Emerging Democracy in Late Imperial Russia: Case Studies on Local Self-Government (the Zemstvos), State Duma Elections, the Tsarist Government, and the State Council before and during World War I.