2017), who find a belt of weakened 500-hPa zonal-mean zonal winds
near the latitude of earlier spring-summer snowmelt in North America, creating relative wind maxima to the north and south.
However, rocketsonde observations from the 1960s reported a major inconsistency in that the mean zonal winds
, instead of remaining strong, become weaker or even reverse direction above about an altitude of 70km.
The shapes of the storm's head and tail were sculpted by the shear of the permanent zonal winds
, which consist of parallel bands that alternately blow east and west.
Wind patterns resulting from solar heating and east to west zonal winds
compete, possibly resulting in altered local temperatures and their variability over time.
Whereas this behaviour has been interpreted in terms of wave motion opposite to the zonal winds
, (15,16) the more straightforward interpretation is that coherent spots are intrinsically slow-moving but smaller ones are weakly entrained by the zonal winds
Figure 2 shows the climatology of zonal mean zonal winds
for December, January, February climatology (DJF) for the analyzed period.
1 and can be easily seen in the climatological zonal-mean zonal winds
shown in Fig.
Uranus and Neptune are at the far extreme, with the least total heat energy but very strong zonal winds
driven and defined by the planets' rotation.
Major SSWs are also associated with a reversal of the climatological westerly zonal-mean zonal winds
Steady easterlies do not exist in the equatorial Indian Ocean, where reversing zonal winds
cause intermittent amplification of an eastward-flowing surface current at the equator known as the Yoshida-Wyrtki jet (Yoshida 1959; Wyrtki 1973).
Weaker zonal winds
owing to the reduced poleward temperature difference cause waves to travel eastward more slowly; thus, Arctic amplification should retard the progression of large-scale atmospheric waves, leading to more persistent weather patterns.
2001) clearly shows that even such a basic quantity as zonally averaged, time-mean zonal winds
are not well constrained by the present observing system.