zoning


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Related to zoning: Zoning ordinance, Zoning Map

zoning,

legislative regulations by which a municipal government seeks to control the use of buildings and land within the municipality. It has become, in the United States, a widespread method of controlling urban and suburban construction and removing congestion and other defects of existing plans. Great Britain, Germany, and Sweden preceded the United States in zoning for the purpose of controlling building in new areas adjoining cities, but now use comprehensive plans. The zoning resolution adopted by New York City in 1916 was the first in the United States and has profoundly affected New York architecture, while the standard it set has been followed by other cities. By this law (since superseded) New York City was divided into use districts, area districts, and height districts. Use districts are of four classes: residential, business, retail, and unrestricted. The height and area limitations serve to insure light and air for the occupants of city buildings. Municipal zoning was upheld by the Supreme Court in 1926; its decision, which concerned the ordinance adopted by Euclid, Ohio, established zoning as a legitimate use of a municipality's police power to protect the public welfare. In the United States the state legislatures hold the power to authorize zoning, under which the separate municipalities enact their own zoning ordinances, which are typically closely integrated with a city planningcity planning,
process of planning for the improvement of urban centers in order to provide healthy and safe living conditions, efficient transport and communication, adequate public facilities, and aesthetic surroundings.
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 program. Zoning has been used to maintain the suburban, and class character of a municipality, however, and as such has been called exclusionary zoning; it has produced racial and economic segregation. The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled against such zoning in directing that public housing in Chicago be spread beyond the city limits. Some state courts have gone further, declaring that developing communities have an obligation to accommodate their fair share of a region's needs for modest homes and apartments.

Bibliography

See S. J. Makielski, Jr., The Politics of Zoning: The New York Experience (1966); N. Williams, The Structure of Urban Zoning, and Its Dynamics in Urban Planning and Development (1966); S. I. Toll, Zoned America (1969); R. B. Andrews, ed., Urban Land Use Policy: The Central City (1972); R. E. Babcock and C. L. Sieman, The Zoning Game Revisited (1985); A. J. King, Law and Land Use in Chicago (1986).

Zoning

Political jurisdictions divided into geographic zones with different mixtures of allowable use, size, siting, and form of real property; typically applied in conjunction with a zoning code or review of permit applications for developments and variances. The allocation of land use by a statutory authority for planning purposes and the legal restriction that deems that part of cities be reserved for particular uses, such as residential, commercial, industrial, and recreational.

zoning

[′zōn·iŋ]
(civil engineering)
Designation and reservation under a master plan of land use for light and heavy industry, dwellings, offices, and other buildings; use is enforced by restrictions on types of buildings in each zone.
(crystallography)
A variation in the composition of a crystal from core to margin due to a separation of the crystal phases during its growth by loss of equilibrium in a continuous reaction series.
(electromagnetism)
The displacement of various portions of the lens or surface of a microwave reflector so the resulting phase front in the near field remains unchanged. Also known as stepping.

zoning

The control by a municipality of the use of land and buildings, the height and bulk of buildings, the density of population, the relation of a lot’s building coverage to open space, the size and location of yards and setbacks, and the provision of any ancillary facilities such as parking. Zoning, established through the adoption of a municipal ordinance, is a principal instrument in implementing a master plan.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, there is a third group who argue effectively that current zoning is too lax and is unfairly enforced.
They point to the creation of over 1,100 private, not-for-profit land trusts which have been created across the country to protect valuable sites from local zoning board's need to rezone for the creation of taxable income for their municipalities.
By incorporating Zoning functionality in every switch, storage managers have greater flexibility in allocating fabric resources and they can maximize their investment in storage network infrastructure.
Zoning is an efficient means to implement heterogeneous platforms, maximize common resources, implement security policies, and amortize storage network investment.
Early opposition to the zoning ordinance was organized largely by Klein and Meredith James, a veteran of the successful 1948 and 1962 anti-zoning campaigns.
The handbook will also help New Yorkers put in perspective the many land use changes they see around them and understand how zoning is used to guide those changes.
Although not required by law, virtually all development rights transfers are also accompanied by a zoning lot development agreement, which is strongly recommended for all parties to the zoning lot merger.
The property owner required lot area and street frontage variances from the Zoning Board of Appeals of the Town of Harrison before proceeding.
We will close loopholes that have produced buildings far taller and larger than was intended when the Zoning Resolution was adopted," Rose said in a statement.
There is still no CMBS industry consensus as to who should be held responsible for procuring evidence of zoning compliance - borrower, lender or lender's counsel.
Under the present Zoning Resolution, it is virtually impossible to obtain a variance for a sign.
In light of the foregoing, an adopted Plan should have a substantial bearing on the city's receptivity to a developer's zoning map change proposal.