zoning


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Related to zoning: Zoning ordinance, Zoning Map

zoning,

legislative regulations by which a municipal government seeks to control the use of buildings and land within the municipality. It has become, in the United States, a widespread method of controlling urban and suburban construction and removing congestion and other defects of existing plans. Great Britain, Germany, and Sweden preceded the United States in zoning for the purpose of controlling building in new areas adjoining cities, but now use comprehensive plans. The zoning resolution adopted by New York City in 1916 was the first in the United States and has profoundly affected New York architecture, while the standard it set has been followed by other cities. By this law (since superseded) New York City was divided into use districts, area districts, and height districts. Use districts are of four classes: residential, business, retail, and unrestricted. The height and area limitations serve to insure light and air for the occupants of city buildings. Municipal zoning was upheld by the Supreme Court in 1926; its decision, which concerned the ordinance adopted by Euclid, Ohio, established zoning as a legitimate use of a municipality's police power to protect the public welfare. In the United States the state legislatures hold the power to authorize zoning, under which the separate municipalities enact their own zoning ordinances, which are typically closely integrated with a city planningcity planning,
process of planning for the improvement of urban centers in order to provide healthy and safe living conditions, efficient transport and communication, adequate public facilities, and aesthetic surroundings.
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 program. Zoning has been used to maintain the suburban, and class character of a municipality, however, and as such has been called exclusionary zoning; it has produced racial and economic segregation. The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled against such zoning in directing that public housing in Chicago be spread beyond the city limits. Some state courts have gone further, declaring that developing communities have an obligation to accommodate their fair share of a region's needs for modest homes and apartments.

Bibliography

See S. J. Makielski, Jr., The Politics of Zoning: The New York Experience (1966); N. Williams, The Structure of Urban Zoning, and Its Dynamics in Urban Planning and Development (1966); S. I. Toll, Zoned America (1969); R. B. Andrews, ed., Urban Land Use Policy: The Central City (1972); R. E. Babcock and C. L. Sieman, The Zoning Game Revisited (1985); A. J. King, Law and Land Use in Chicago (1986).

Zoning

Political jurisdictions divided into geographic zones with different mixtures of allowable use, size, siting, and form of real property; typically applied in conjunction with a zoning code or review of permit applications for developments and variances. The allocation of land use by a statutory authority for planning purposes and the legal restriction that deems that part of cities be reserved for particular uses, such as residential, commercial, industrial, and recreational.

zoning

[′zōn·iŋ]
(civil engineering)
Designation and reservation under a master plan of land use for light and heavy industry, dwellings, offices, and other buildings; use is enforced by restrictions on types of buildings in each zone.
(crystallography)
A variation in the composition of a crystal from core to margin due to a separation of the crystal phases during its growth by loss of equilibrium in a continuous reaction series.
(electromagnetism)
The displacement of various portions of the lens or surface of a microwave reflector so the resulting phase front in the near field remains unchanged. Also known as stepping.

zoning

The control by a municipality of the use of land and buildings, the height and bulk of buildings, the density of population, the relation of a lot’s building coverage to open space, the size and location of yards and setbacks, and the provision of any ancillary facilities such as parking. Zoning, established through the adoption of a municipal ordinance, is a principal instrument in implementing a master plan.
References in periodicals archive ?
In some New York City neighborhoods, there have been so many requests for variances, specifically for residential conversion in industrial neighborhoods, that the city's zoning plan is being rewritten through the use of variances.
Zoning code is tightly specific as to development density in all zones; however, the residential zone is the most highly differentiated.
Among the many benefits for storage administrators, Zoning enables:
Houston remains a model for city leaders around the country who wish to learn how cities can be better off without zoning," says Barry Klein, a public-policy consultant who co-founded the Houston Property Rights Association, the grassroots anti-zoning organization spearheading the opposition to zoning (where I serve as media director).
Zoning Tools allow users to draw irregular zones, merge and split zones, make zones overlapping, and identify zones to ignore during OCR.
As the first revision of the handbook in 16 years, its much-anticipated release coincides with the most far reaching revision of the city's zoning since 1961.
In New York City, that transfer can occur in three ways: (1) as-of-right in a private transaction between property owners, without any public approvals, (2) where the site is a designated New York City landmark, across a street or intersection with an approval from the City Planning Commission, and (3) in certain zoning districts--for example the Grand Central subdistrict of the Special Midtown zoning district or the Special South Street Seaport subdistrict of the Special Lower Manhattan District.
Board of Zoning Appeals of Town of Hempstead, the Roosevelt Field Mall sought permission from the Town of Hempstead Board of Zoning Appeals to expand the mall to add a Saks Fifth Avenue store.
Each zoning district would be allowed only one or two "simple building envelopes.
Not too much earlier in the decade, "zoning issue" was all but an oxymoron, and a zoning problem was hardly capable of holding up the funding of a mortgage loan.
A variance is an authorization for the construction or maintenance of a building or structure, or use of land, which is otherwise prohibited by applicable zoning regulations.
The [City Planning] Commission shall consider pertinent adopted plans in its review of land use and zoning actions, where such consideration is consistent with the City Charter and general law.