Cheilostomes possess many superior attributes focused at the colony margin, where (1) zooidal
skeletons and feeding structures are full-sized because of rapid ontog enetic development; (2) labile morphogenetic responses (such as raising growing edges, frontal budding, and stolon production) are possible; and (3) excurrents are produced (McKinney, 1992; 1993; 1995a, b).
The crucial features of cheilostomatids, however, are probably (1) rapid ontogenetic development resulting in full-sized zooidal
skeletons (and feeding structures) at colony margins, (2) labile morphogenetic responses at colony margins (raised gro wing edges, frontal budding, stolon production and others), and (3) water excurrents that leave around the colony margin, potentially into the area of uptake for a cyclostomatid competitor.
Although the kamptozoan zooid includes the stalk and stolon, I have limited attention in this study to the calyx, because the kamptozoan calyx is the zooidal
element most comparable to the reproductive zooids of other colonial animals such as hydroids, bryozoans, and ascidians.