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see reproductionreproduction,
capacity of all living systems to give rise to new systems similar to themselves. The term reproduction may refer to this power of self-duplication of a single cell or a multicellular animal or plant organism.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a cell formed as a result of the fusion of gametes. The term “zygote” was introduced by the German botanist E. Strassburger. As distinct from gametes, a zygote has a diploid (double) set of chromosomes. The zygote develops directly after fertilization or, as in many algae and fungi, takes on a thick covering and becomes a dormant spore, often called a zygospore, for some time.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


An organism produced by the union of two gametes.
The fertilized ovum before cleavage.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Previous studies have suggested that embryos with 3PN, which develop from ICSI zygotes, are endowed with mechanisms to correct triploidy to diploidy.
Following IVF, presumptive zygotes were cultured in SOFaa embryo culture medium supplemented with or without antioxidants (a mixture of 1 mM L-glutathione reduced and 1,500 IU superoxide dismutase).
Figure 1J-N shows the zygote at early anaphase of the first meiosis viewed from the animal pole.
Successful applications of ssODN have been demonstrated in various animal models through direct injection of CRISPR/Cas9 components into zygotes [28-30] or in human ESCs and iPSC for modeling human diseases [31-33].
When researchers injected the Cas9RNA protein targeting the mutation into already fertilized zygotes, they found that 67% of the resulting embryos had two normal copies of the MYBPC3 gene.
High levels of ROS represent a major contributing factor in vitro to developmental blockage in zygotes [6].
In mouse embryos, the gene is active in zygotes; its RNA then dips in abundance but rises again at the eight-cell stage.
A human embryo is the product of a fertilised egg, from the zygote until the fetal stage [6] or 'the developing organism from fertilization to the end of the eighth week.
In each of these cases, the mitochondria in the egg or the donated zygote replace defective mitochondria and protect the child from related diseases.
In the July 6 samples after double fertilization the zygote remained undivided which was located at the micropylar pole (Table 1).